Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 4/2002
On Libet's experiments 5
Background and aim: In his experiments, Libet studied the time of the onset of conscious events and the time of neuronal activity associated with these events. The paper discusses interpretations of Benjamin Libet's experiments on the relation between neuronal activity and consciousness. Material and method: A comparison is made with other experiments by Hans H. Kornhuber and Lüder Deecke and Libet's findings are described and discussed in detail. Results and conclusion: In the comparison and taking into account other experiments the role of consciousness in initiating actions is much greater than judged by Libet.
Bożena Śpila, Hanna Karakuła, Anna Grzywa
Symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia and anxiety - a dynamic analysis 15
Background and aim: The aim of the work was an analysis of connecting anxiety with other symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia during an episode of the disease. Material and method: 66 patients admitted to hospital with an episode of paranoid schizophrenia were examined by a set of tests. Exacerbation of anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), whilst symptoms of schizophrenia - by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SANS, SAPS). Results: Statistically important correlations between anxiety and the majority of positive symptoms were observed. On the other hand, correlations between negative symptoms and the anxiety experienced by the sick appeared variously. Conclusion: There are significant correlations when analysing the connection between anxiety and other symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia during an episode of the disease.
Frank M. Dattilio and John E. Castaldo
Case report. Differentiating symptoms of panic from relapse of Guillain-Barré Syndrome 27
The aim of the paper is to discuss the differentiation between symptoms of panic and a relapse of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). Longer-term sequellae of panic, sleeplessness and depression may cause patients who formerly had GBS to believe that they are suffering a relapse of their GBS. A case report is presented which highlights some of the neurological and psychiatric symptoms of GBS and illustrates how symptoms of panic may mimic those of GBS and other illnesses (i.e., cardiopulmonary diseases). The treatment of panic symptoms associated with the syndrome, as well as strategies for how patients can differentiate between anxiety and a relapse of GBS are discussed.
Agnieszka Gmitrowicz, Hanna Kołodziej-Maciejewska
Dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescents after a suicide attempt 37
Background and aim: The objective of this research was to find out whether there is a relation between the observed suicidal behaviours, mental disorders and dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Material and method: Two populations were subject of the research: 84 adolescents aged 14-21, after suicide attempts (ASA - drug overdose), never treated psychiatrically, and 30 adolescents after accidental intoxication (ACI). In each patient the serum levels of cortisol and ACTH were assessed, and the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was made. Results: Most patients in the ASA group were females. In this group statistically higher levels of cortisol after DST were found, as compared to the ACI group. Considering the patients' sex, the differences of serum cortisol levels were significant only in females. We found that higher cortisol levels in ASA were related to diagnosed depressive disorders (mostly in females), presence of psychosocial and environmental problems, and elevated risk of repeated suicide attempt. Conclusion: In the examined group of 84 adolescents after suicidal poisonings a statistically significantly higher serum cortisol levels after dexamethasone were found, as compared to the control group composed of 30 accidentally intoxicated adolescents.
Beata Ziarko, Zygmunt Podbielski, Marzena Twardowska
Differences in the deprivation of needs among women and men in connection with the necessity of hospitalisation in the psychiatric ward 53
Background and aim: We aimed to study the differences in the deprivation of needs among women and men in connection with the necessity of being hospitalised in a psychiatric ward. Material and method: The study included 53 patients hospitalised in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lubliniec (29 women, 24 men). We took into account the number of psychiatric hospitalisations, length of the present psychiatric hospitalisation and clinical diagnosis. As a clinical tool we used a questionnaire constructed especially for the study. The questionnaire is based on Murray's psychic needs' conception. Results: Although the average value of the deprivation of needs for both examined groups appeared to be the same, differences appeared within the hierarchy of needs. There are statistically significant differences between men and women referring to the needs of getting to know new things, of reaching one's own ambition and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion: In certain aspects men and women differ significantly in the deprivation of needs when hospitalised.
Richard D. Chessick
An unfinished didactic novel. Chapter 4: Cappadocia 59