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..:: PSYCHOTERAPIA 1/2003 ::..
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numer: 1
wydany: 2003-03-02


Psychoterapia 1/2003

Szymon Chrząstowski
Sposób odczuwania własnego ciała przez osoby z rozpoznaniem schizofrenii, depresji i zaburzeń osobowości  5
The pathology of body experience in patients with schizoprenia, depression and personality disorders  5
Summary: It this study, the pathology of body experience in patients with schizophrenia, depression and personality disorders was examined. Three categories of body experience were distinguished: identification with the body, the type of the body sensation, and vitality. The manner of the body experience was assessed by the original instruments. The predictions of the values of distinguished variables were based on the following selected approaches in psychotherapy: the Laing approach, the Gestalt therapy and the Lowen's bioenergetics. The findings confirm that the body-related pathology could be attributed to mental problems.

Elżbieta Galińska
Doświadczenia urazowe i ich terapia metodą "portretu muzycznego"(PM)  19
Traumatic experiences and their therapy by means of the musical portrait method  19
Summary: In 1995 I have included the instrumental version of the J.R.Moreno psychodrama into the method of musical portrait (developed in 1973, concerning the "self" structure). From that time, I have begun systematic therapy of traumatic experiences, including the so-called "surplus reality". The method of determining the musical portrait (MP) has been thus enriched by psychoanalytic filling, operating within the cognitive framework of the method itself.
In the paper, genesis, assumptions, therapeutic goals, structure and techniques used for this MP method, as well as the therapeutic process in traumatic experiences of non psychotic patients is presented. It is performed in several phases including: activation of the blocked energies and revealing the negative emotions and limitations, as well as revealing the patient's own needs, obtaining pardon and satisfaction, and later providing support of the close persons and obtaining the proper equipment of the patients for the future role of the male and female. The phase of catharsis is followed by the personality integration phase.
This therapy phase was demonstrated in the example of the case studies of 3 patients: a bulimic female patient with long-term rape experiences and two patients with a broad trauma, due to their small height. The subsequent analysis of the therapeutic process explains the rematricisation of the primitive, pathologic pattern of behaviour or role pattern (as for example victim or aggressor) aroused under the influence of the trauma. Specific role of music and musical psychodrama played during this process was also found.

Alfried Längle, Wiedeń
Rozmowa terapeutyczna jako droga odkrywania siebie samego. "Drogowskazy" do wolności. 41
A therapeutic conversation for finding oneself. A guidance to one's own will  41
Summary: Existential Analysis, a psychotherapeutic approach derived from existential philosophy, intends a life with inner consent. This implies activating the authentic personal will (freedom) and responsibility. The method used for that purpose is "Personal Existential Analysis". It defines three steps, which help to find the resources of the innermost (intimate) person ("Me") and its individual way of expression in a defined situation ("Self"). - A practical application is shown in this verbal transcript of a therapeutic conversation supplemented by explanatory commentaries about the therapeutic process itself.

Andrzej Kokoszka, Joanna Roman, Ludwik Bryła, Andrzej Grabowski
Związki poprawy objawowej ze zmianą mechanizmów obronnych w trakcie leczenia zaburzeń nerwicowych. Doniesienie wstępne  55
The relationship between symptom reduction and changes in defence mechanisms during treatment of patients with neurotic disorders and mood disorders. First report  55
Summary: The relationship between symptoms reduction and changes in defence mechanisms during three months of an intensive group psychodynamic psychotherapy in the daily unit was studied in a group of 31 patients of age 18-50 (M = 28.96; SD = 7.91) with neurotic disorders and mild and moderate mood disorders. Moderate correlations of neurotic symptoms reduction (in Symptoms Check List S-II [Aleksandrowicz 2000] with the increase of mature defence mechanisms (r = -0,359) and with the decrease of immature defence mechanisms (r = 0,363; p<0,04) measured with the Polish version of the Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ - 40 were found.

Jan Chodkiewicz, Antoni Pisarski
Podejście poznawczo-behawioralne w terapii uzależnienia od alkoholu  61
Cognitive-behavioural therapy in alcohol abuse  61
Summary: The article provides information on cognitive- behavioural therapy of alcohol abuse. The literature concerning beliefs and expectations of roles in keeping of abstinence was reviewed. Furthermore it describes the author's techniques which are made on the ground of A. Ellis' and A. Beck's concepts. These techniques are used in alcohol abuse therapy- the rational way of thought training and working with thoughts which make sobering difficult

Elżbieta Nitendel-Bujakowa
Terapia rodzinna w Specjalistycznej Poradni Psychoprofilaktyki i Terapii Rodzin w Lublinie  69
Family therapy in the Specialist Psychoprophylactic and Family Therapy Clinic  69
Summary: The author presents her own model of work with the family based on the systemic paradigm. She describes the spectrum of problems submitted to therapy by parents with children in different age and the means of leading family therapeutic meetings.

Krzysztof Rutkowski
Jaźń w psychologii analitycznej  77
Basic differences between ego and self in the analytical psychology perspective  77
Summary: Basic differences between ego and self have been described from the analytical psychology perspective. Their definitions, which were accompanied by a commentary, include particular basic analytical terminology, individuation dynamics and the importance of self-experience. One part of the paper comprises the analysis of the attitude towards these concepts in the Polish specialist publications and in translations of classic works on psychoanalysis. Amongst many, the attention was drawn to divergence and lack of uniform usage of the concepts of ego and self and the probable reason for this phenomenon.

Hester McFarland Solomon, London
Miłość - paradoks relacji jaźń/inny  83
Love: paradox of self and other  83
Summary: This paper seeks to explore love through the principle that underlies all of the various manifestations of love: that is, the self in relation to another. Following Jung's central principle of the teleological nature of the psyche, the author offers the view that psychological events and states have purpose and meaning, thus effecting how the self may develop and grow. The author argues that in studying the earliest love situations an understanding of the bases of love may be found, which are the primordial links to an understanding of what happens in later life, including in the consulting room. The author refers to Fordham's explanatory model of the self as oscillating rhythmically between states of deintegration and reintegration, to suggest that this pattern is already well established in utero, such that the self, from within its own self, at  certain moments ceases being in a state of interiority on its own, and reaches out for, finds, and exchanges something with another entity, eventually returning back to itself. The author refers to recent psychoneurobiological and infant research  that shows that the future development of those right hemisphere structures that regulate attachment and other emotional and cognitive behaviours is determined by the quality of the mother - infant interaction in the first weeks and months post partum, in which the infant is an active - and proactive - participant. When a loving relationship with a present object is not available, a loving attachment to an absent or an abusive object may develop as a substitute in order to provide a fantasy of a presence, albeit a present absence. A clinical example is offered in some detail to demonstrate this phenomenon. The author's argument is that love is the element that links the important areas of psychological enquiry: (i) the primary self and its growth and development, and (ii) the self in relation to another. The core idea is that there is a primary self and a primary capacity for relating and loving that are contiguous. The experience of paradox derives from the nature of being human. The self cannot know itself, nor achieve its fullest expression in individuation, except in relation to another. The paradox of love is that, at the very moment that the self searches out and finds another with whom it is possible to relate, it enhances and enriches itself. Love that encompasses self and other may be uncomfortable and difficult to achieve at times, but it thereby carries the deepest potential for the realisation of what it means to be human.