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..:: PSYCHOTERAPIA 3/2003 ::..
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numer: 3
wydany: 2003-09-01


Psychoterapia 3/2003

Mariusz Ślosarczyk
Czy psychoterapia powinna wychowywać?  5
Should psychotherapy bring up?  5
Summary: Parents who come with their children to psychiatrists pretty often expect to gain not only professional psychiatric help but also educational advice. Sometimes all the complaints reported to a doctor are a picture of the parents' difficulties in bringing up the child rather than anything else. Those difficulties often increase during the period of adolescence. The goal of the review paper is to describe possible relations between psychotherapy and upbringing as well as the ways therapists can cope with the titled dilemma. Reflections were built above all on the basis of out-patient work with adolescents. The main conclusion is that it seems impossible to separate both types of influences but the fact that they coincide is of great importance for the child and adolescent therapists as being not only a source of new challenges but also of additional responsibility.

Luigi Zoja
Jedenasty września: transatlantyckie refleksje. część II  17
September 11: transatlantic reflections.  17
Summary: The article was written immediately after the events of Sept 11th, 2001. The author - an European living in NY - wrote under the shock of the events, but also under the impression that, after an immediate solidarity, European and American views would diverge. The paper consists on 3 parts: 1. The attacks are interpreted as an attempt - on the part of the terrorists - to revive a myth of "Divine Justice" punishing excessive human arrogance, in this case of the USA. 2. The psychic climate of NY in the aftermath of September 11 is described. Paranoid reactions became normality (i.e. suggestions on the part of the official authorities contained exaggerated, paranoid-like suggestions to mistrust anything). 3. The fear is expressed of a "sound and fury" (see Macbeth) reaction on both parts, leading to irrational, growing destructiveness.

Elżbieta Nitendel-Bujakowa, Leszek Szewczyk
Wpływ członków rodziny na ujawnienie się zespołu jadłowstrętu psychicznego. Część I: Samoocena osoby chorej na anoreksję a oceny dokonane przez jej rodziców  27
The impact or family members on anorexia nervosa outcome. Part I. Self-evaluation of an anorectic patient and the evaluation done by her parents  27
Summary: The authors present the results of studies concerning self-evaluation of girls with anorexia nervosa and compare these opinions with evaluations of the same parameters expressed by their mothers and fathers. The study covered 38 girls with anorexia nervosa and 38 healthy girls of the same age selected in couples, who evaluated themselves by completing the Giessen Test (GT). Mothers and fathers evaluated their daughters by means of the same test. A statistically significant difference was observed with respect to the scale of social resonance - in the mothers' opinions, while according to the fathers, apart from social resonance, the difference also concerned a basic mood scale. Both mothers and fathers evaluated their daughters as more popular, esteemed, easily gaining other people's favour, perceived as valuable, taking care of their appearance, and effective in pursuing goals. This evaluation was higher, compared to that expressed by their daughters. Fathers perceived their daughters as less depressive than the girls perceived themselves. In the group of healthy girls self-evaluation was similar to the evaluation by their parents. This may be the cause of conflict situations between girls with anorexia and their parents.

Elżbieta Nitendel-Bujakowa, Leszek Szewczyk
Wpływ członków rodziny na ujawnienie się zespołu jadłowstrętu psychicznego. Część II: Obraz rodziców w rodzinach z córką chorą na anoreksję  37
The impact or family members on anorexia nervosa outcome. Part II. Evaluation of parents in families with a daughter with anorexia nervosa  37
Summary: The results presented are an attempt to approach anorexia nervosa in a multi-aspect way, with particular emphasis placed on its family and objective aspects, i.e. relations within a family from the point of view of both a patient and her parents. Observation of the same phenomenon by various people, and, at the same time, a multi-aspect approach to the disease show that apart from clinical symptoms, the subjective evaluation of these symptoms and the adopted style of coping with it in a family, may result in better functioning of the whole family, and consequently, of the person identified as a patient, as well as assuming by the whole family the responsibility for the process of treatment.

Beata Kasperek, Katarzyna Spiridonow, Małgorzata Chądzyńska
Jakość życia a koncepcja własnej osoby przewlekle chorych na schizofrenię poddawanych rehabilitacji psychiatrycznej  45
The quality of life and patients'concept of self - in chronic schizophrenic patients' rehabilitation  45
Summary: The aim of this research was to investigate: 1. influence of psychiatric rehabilitation on the quality of life level. 2. Correlation between the quality of life and patients' self-concept. A group of 29 patients was tested. There was no statistically significant difference between patients' quality of life before and after rehabilitation. The only significant difference was connected with the sexual dimension of patients' life. The self- concept was not changed after the rehabilitation. The correlation between the quality of life level and the self-concept was not significant. Significant correlation between quality of life level and different components of self-concept were found. The more positive the patients' self-concept was the higher quality of life level they present.

Elżbieta Galińska
Muzykoterapia zaburzonego poczucia tożsamości. "Kodowanie muzyczne" - instalacja ego 1.  61
Music therapy of self-identity. "Musical coding" - ego instalation.  61
Summary: In the paper, the author describes disturbances of the sense of identity of non psychotic patients, manifesting itself as fuzzification and covering up of their own boundaries, when they fulfill their social roles. These disturbances are also connected with improper identification of the patients with their own age and sex (in the sense of social pattern realization). Moreover, attention was drawn here on the disturbances of the sense of identity, determined by the author as "lack of the structures" in the patient. It emerges because of their dependence from significant persons and of impossibility to form their own "self" structure and , in consequence, to realize the "structure" of somebody else, as for example of one of the parents. This phenomenon occurs also in form of some defaults of musical nature. Such patient plays chaotically, does not feel his own pulse and does not order the musical course, assigning a defined meter to it. His play is shapeless. In the interpersonal situation he melts with the partner, and does not feel his own autonomy. The anancastic patient, in turn, does not differentiates his musical outcome, neither in the melodic, nor metro-rhythmic and dynamic range, playing independently of the problem, on the consecutive steps of the scale in the constant, regular rhythm ("scalar pattern"). He doesn't create the hierarchy of importance. In the paper, the author introduces several ways of building the structure of the patient, beginning with the so called "musical coding" (Galińska), that is with installation of the ego, in the form of building rhythmic-melodic "embryo" on a musical instrument, which is based on the biological pulse of the patient. Such activity is introduced during the Musical Portrait (PM) procedure, the method of individual, two hours work with the patient, in presence of the background and help from the therapeutic group. Fragments of clinical work with 4 patients are included: I - two male patients with  emotionally shaky personality: the first  who was not able, even when he wanted, to brake the contact with partner and melted with him musically and the second in which the rhythm of the father was absent, because his father died, when the patient was ten years old; II - female patient with obsessive neurosis - by which "recoding" of relation with a male partner was performed, from the triangle structure to the dual one, and III - female anorectic  patient, experiencing strong anxiety in the regressive situation from the age of the 4-5, when she was sexually abused (molested) by his father in the situations mentioned above. In all such situations, helplessness of the patient appeared and blockade of the therapeutic process. Coding of musical embryo of "self" strengthened the patients and removed the blockade, opening them to the development. The activity described above, acting in the intrapsychical dimension, has creative character, "implantative" and regulative: it creates something new, removes distortions and completes deficits, integrates personality of the patient and strengthens his sense of identity.

Warren Colman
Anima i Animus w rozwoju okresu edypalnego  73
Aspects of anima and animus in Oedipal development  73
Summary: This paper aims to insert the contrasexual archetype into the dynamic narrative of the Oedipus complex. Jung used the terms anima and animus to classify observed phenomena but did not explore the developmental origins of these phenomena in terms of personal history and experience. Some typical manifestations of anima and animus are described and shown to be rooted in the vicissitudes of Oedipal development. The contrasexual archetype is initially mediated by the oedipally loved parent and subsequent manifestations bear the imprint not only of the parent themselves but of the entire complex of object relationships in which Oedipal love is embedded. Successful resolution of the Oedipus complex depends on freeing the anima/animus from its Oedipal bonds so that its function as a bridge to the unconscious can be realised. This function is connected with the emergence of a symbolic capacity through which anima and animus can be recognised and valued as imaginal rather than external realities. The clinical material explores the damaging impact of a split parental couple on this process and the positive role of idealisation as a stimulus to psychic development.

Agnieszka Idziak
Poziom agresji a funkcjonowanie pacjenta z chorobą niedokrwienną serca i jego systemu rodzinnego  93
The level of aggression and the functioning of a coronary heart disease patient and of his family system  93
Summary: Coronary heart disease is one of the biggest problems in our times. In most of the developing countries almost 30% of people die due to it yearly. Coronary heart disease does not touch only a single person. It is a psychosomatic disorder and we can say that it is disease concerning the whole family. In this article the results of research on 40 men with coronary heart disease and their wives are presented. They were subjected to psychological and psychiatric examinations, which gave information about their life situation and functioning within their families. The results of the research indicate a specific functioning of those families. Men with coronary heart disease are more aggressive and they also have aggressive wives.