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numer: 1
wydany: 2004-03-02



Jacek Bomba, Renata Modrzejewska, Maciej Pilecki, Mariusz Ślosarczyk
Adolescent depression as a risk factor for the development of mental disorders. A 15-year prospective follow-up     5
Summary Aim: The project attempts to assess the impact of adolescent depression on the development of mental disorders, substance dependency and social pathology in adulthood, as well as the difference in the risk of depression between early and mid adolescence. Method: In 1984 the prevalence rate of depression was assessed in a representative sample of an urban adolescent population. The Cracow Depression Survey (KID) was used as a screening tool. In 2000, all participants of the earlier phase of the study were informed by mail about the tasks of the project and were asked to answer the attached questionnaire. Treatment details were collected from district psychiatric hospitals and a local intoxication centre. The study group. A total of 985 letters were sent out (introductory data regarding 50 subjects was incomplete). Fifty letters were returned unopened. There were 256 responses (168 women and 87 men). Results: A statistically significant relationship was observed between adolescent depression and the deterioration in general health, as well as cigarette smoking. Mid-adolescence depression in men was related to the lack of a significant partnership; while in women it was related to motherhood and disrupted marriage. Early adolescent depression in women was related to less extended extra-familiar social relations. Conversely, women who suffered from depression in their mid-adolescence declared more relations of this kind. Conclusions: Adolescent depression determined by the results of KID seems to have an impact on general health conditions and social relations, particularly in women. The nature of this impact is not clear. Gender plays a more important role in comparison to the stage of adolescence in which the depression appeared.
Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska, Anna Dietrich-Muszalska, Agnieszka Gmitrowicz
The prevalence of social phobia in a representative group of adolescents from Łódź      15
Summary In cooperation with GUS* we assessed the prevalence of specific and generalized type of social phobia in a representative group of adolescents population extracted from the city of Łódź. We found, that generalized social phobia was present in 7% of the subjects. A specific type constituted 17% of subjects. 15% of adolescents with social phobia were alcohol or psychoactive drug abusers, 5% had attempted suicide. Only Ąth of adolescents with social phobia were involved in psychological or psychiatric treatment. (*GUS - Main statistical office)
  Jan Fenczyn, Czesław Szmigiel
Self-evaluation among adolescents with mild obesity      23
Summary Aim: The purpose of the study was to learn about the self-evaluation of adolescents with simple obesity. Knowledge of patient self-evaluation related to some of their features is important in the course of treatment and rehabilitation, particularly the psychological rehabilitation of individuals with simple obesity at varying stages of adolescence. External appearance and physical features are of particular importance in childhood and early adolescence. They determine the acceptance or rejection by a peer group and the social status within the group and hence can lead to psychological traumas and complexities. Material and method: The survey encompassed 75 females and 150 males diagnosed with simple obesity (experimental group E) and 75 non obese females and 90 non obese males (control group C) in three age groups: 12, 14 and 16 years. The degree of obesity was specified with the aid of percentile height-weight charts. Body mass that was documented above 95 percentile was considered obese. The fatty tissue, the thickness of skin and fatty folds on the abdomen, above the triceps muscles of the arm and under the shoulder blades were measured. The self-evaluation survey was conducted by means of a list containing 31 pairs of contrasted adjectives which characterized features of outward appearance, physical features, psychological features and psychosocial features. The adjectives were selected by the authors. The results were subjected to the statistical research method U - test for two structure components. Results: Generally young obese individuals tend to attribute themselves to more socially disapproved features than is the case with their non obese counterparts. In young people with simple obesity features of external appearance and physical features are more evident than psychological and psychosocial ones. The greatest differences in self-evaluation between both groups of sex and the E/C groups are observed at the age of 14. Obese females and obese males alike are more often willing to attribute to themselves pejorative features in relation to self-evaluation than their non obese female friends. Obese males in all cases proved to be more critical than their female friends. In comparisons between the youngest male subgroups and middle female subgroups the least number of quantitative and qualitative differences was observed. Discussion: In accordance with the accepted assumption self-evaluation of obese and non obese young people differed qualitatively and quantitatively from the self-evaluation of non obese young people. In the literature reviewed by the authors this problem has been treated mostly in a general manner. Hence, our findings may prove to be useful in rehabilitation procedures. Conclusion: With maturity, self-evaluation becomes increasingly developed and more critical which might demonstrate the need for early psychotherapy of young individuals' obesity in order to minimize the psychological consequences associated with this condition.
Martin Drapeau
An exploratory study of the wishes and fears of pedophiles - an Eriksonian perspective     27
Summary This descriptive exploratory study examined the nature of the arrest in the psychosocial development of generally fixated child abusers using the well-known model suggested by Erikson in 1985. Non-directive interviews with N = 18 pedophiles (N=18) were rated using the Wish & Fear List (Perry, 1996). Results suggest that the subjects had conflicts related to stage I (trust vs. mistrust) and stage II (autonomy vs. shame and doubt). More specifically, the subjects wished or needed to communicate needs and be understood, to be independent and autonomous, and to be near a significant other. They also feared being controlled or dominated, having distressing feelings, and trusting others.
  Salomon Resnik
Bodily feelings in a dreaming world. Clinical thoughts on psychosis     45
Richard D. Chessick
An unfinished experimental didactic novel. Chapter 9: Istanbul     55