Puzynski S. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Affective disorders in international classification of disorders ICD-10:classification of mental and behavioral disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):175-83, 1992. May-Aug.
Slosarska M. Boresewicz M. Wojcik M. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [The analogous self-rating scale of affect as a tool in the assessment ofchange of clinical status of patients with endogenous depression syndrome. Acomparison with the Hamilton depression scale].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):197-205, 1992. May-Aug.The authors compare the results of the analogous self-rating scale of affect with self report of affect (Hamilton Scale) in 57 patients with depression during the course of affective disorder. The ASRA seems to be particularly useful in the assessment of improvement in patients with slight or moderate depression.
Jarosz M. Poprawska I. Katedry i I Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Lodzi. [Awareness of illness in affective psychosis].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):207-13, 1992. May-Aug.On the basis of analyzed clinical material several observations were attempted which were related to the patients' awareness of one's own affective psychosis. It was discovered that patients with endogenous depression considered themselves to be ill, but only in relation to depression. They usually do not perceive in themselves any psychotic illness. It was noticed that in depression past achievements appeared to be foreign to the patients. This was described in among other terms as "emotionally empty judgments". Analyzing the clinical picture of hypomanic states, stress was placed on the notion of the coexistence of logical thinking (and in some cases these thinking patterns are concerned with a feeling of heightened cognitive ability) with thinking styles based on logical errors. In all patients hypermnesia appears more important than other factors. The above mentioned phenomena are the subject of further research. 
Puzynska E. Grzegorczyk J. Sredniawa H. Niedzielska A. Osiecka-Doniec E. Stomma D. Witkowska-Ulatowska H. Borak J. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawie. [The psychological health of offspring of patients suffering from endogenousaffective disorder (II a follow-up study)].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):223-31, 1992. May-Aug.In the off-spring of patients with affective disorder various psychological disorders were found in 25% subjects. In the off-spring of healthy persons only 10% were found to have psychological disorders.
Stanczak T. Bizon E. Owczarek K. Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Selected demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with affectivedisorder treated in the Tworki Hospital in the years 1919- 1938 and1947-1990. ].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):233-41, 1992. May-Aug.On the basis of medical records of 353 patients with affective disorder from the years 1919-1938 and 1947-1990. it was found that some demographic and clinical changes occurred. Amongst others there was observed a rise in the percentage of patients with depression from 1/3 to 2/3 and a fall in the number of patients suffering from mania.
Hein-Antonik K. Kiejna A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej, Wroclawiu. [The treatment of mixed affective syndromes].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):243-9, 1992. May-Aug.
Czarnecka E. Katedry Farmakologii Akademii Medycznej, Lodzi. [Ethyl alcohol and anti-depressive medication].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):259-64, 1992. May-Aug.
Kokoszka A. Katedry Psychiatrii i Kliniki Psychiatrii Doroslych AM, Krakowie. [Altered states of consciousness: a history of research].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):543-52, 1992. A history of studies on altered states of consciousness is described and divided into five main periods. Contemporary descriptive and psychophysiological research are reviewed. 
Plocka M. Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszczy. [Gender differences in schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):327-36, 1992. The authors conclude that most male schizophrenic patients display poorer premorbid functioning during the early stages of the illness. They more often display structural micro-abnormalities of the brain, organic deficits, are more chronic and have poor prognosis. Female patients are more often burdened with genetic factors, more often express productive and affective symptomatology, are more sensitive to neuroleptics and the course of their illness is more satisfactory. 
Rzewuska M. Wronska A. Samodzielnej Pracowni Farmakoterapii, Warszawie. [Characteristics of early and late onset of schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):337-45, 1992. Two groups of patients derived from paranoid schizophrenia population of Mokotow were compared. The early onset group (before 25th year of age 57 persons) and late onset group (after 40 year of age 48 persons). Characteristics of the course of illness in both groups were compared with respect to productive symptomatology and adaptation. The course of illness was more favorable in the case of late onset psychoses (shorter relapses, longer improvements, fewer hospitalizations, better adaptation). In late schizophrenias the productive symptoms were more often directed towards environment and identity and consistency less frequent. These differences were interpreted as differences in mechanism of personality integration with paranoid syndrome in early and late onset schizophrenia.
Dabkowska M. Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszczy. [Stress, depression and schizophrenia in view of psychoimmunology]. Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):347-56, 1992. The authors discuss the influence of stress on the immunological system. They describe changes in this system in depressive and in schizophrenic patients and analyze the eventual effect of these changes in the pathogenesis of endogenous psychopathology. The authors conclude that despite the fact that research into the immunology of these aspects are in the beginning stages, the data so far collected indicate a promising result. 
Plocka M. Matkowski K. Lehmann W. Kanarkowski R. Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszczy. [Dexamethasone suppression test in endogenous depression and schizophrenia inmale and female patients].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):373-80, 1992. Dexamethasone Suppression Test was performed during an acute phase in 81 patients with endogenous depression and 105 schizophrenic patients. The lack of suppression of cortisol was found in 1/3 if those ill with depression and 1/3 of those ill with schizophrenia. A relationship between those results and age was shown in female schizophrenic patients. In both groups a yearly rhythm was observed, however female patients differed from male patients.
Zieba A. Stach R. Katedry Psychiatrii AM, Krakowie. [Comparison of the concentration of "depressive cognitive factors" inpatients with various levels of depression].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):389-97, 1992.
Swiecicki L. Rosnowska E. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii. [The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the plasma of patienthospitalized with mental illness (literature review and pilot study]. Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):399-409, 1992. 47 hospitalized patients on the Second Clinic were assessed for levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Insufficient amounts of vitamin B12 were found in 21 patients (44.7%) and insufficient levels of folic acid were found in 23 patients (48.9%). 
Juczynski Z. Szamborska J. Jedrzejczyk A. Zakladu Zdrowia Psychicznego Instytutu Centrum Medycyny Doswiadczalnej iKlinicznej PAN, Lodzi. [Treatment effectiveness predictors in patients with alcohol dependency].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):411-20, 1992. Research was conducted on 220, 40 year old patients with a history of treatment for alcohol dependency. The prognosis of treatment effectiveness was based on a model of multiple regression. Five prognostic indices were discovered which explained 65% of total variation of the criterion variable.
Sidorowicz S. Bem Z. Wasik A. Sasiadek M. Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Wroclawiu. [Analysis of the reversibility of CT brain changes in alcohol dependentpatient].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):431-7, 1992. Control CT assessments of the brain of 15 alcohol dependent patients who showed an improvement in their clinical state were performed after a mean of 16 months. A partial decrease of the widening of cerebral sulci and the third ventrical was noticed. Also, the neuroradiological pictures of the vermis and cerebellum were seen to improve in most patients.
Leszek J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Wroclawiu. [Interferon theory of schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):381-7, 1992. The author presents a literature review of the eventual role of interferon in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Research material is presented of 20 chronic schizophrenic patients treated with Hu-alpha which seems to substantiate the beneficial effects of this substance in some cases which are resistant to current treatment methods. 
Zyss T. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Krakowie. [Will electroconvulsive therapy induce seizures: magnetic brain stimulationas hypothesis of a new psychiatric therapy].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):531-41, 1992. This study presents a hypothesis of a new psychiatric therapy. Deep, low-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation is theoretically able to evoke the same therapeutic effects as electro-convulsive therapy but in a softer mode/painlessly and without a motor seizure. 
Chlebowski M. Wojewodzkiego Specjalistycznego Szpitala dla Nerwowo i Psychicznie Chorych,Ciborzu. [Electroconvulsive therapy administered to the elderly].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):519-29, 1992.
Krzyzowski J. Kliniki Psychiatrycznej AM, Warszawie. [Neurological symptoms during administration of electroconvulsive therapy]. Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):511-8, 1992.
Ekiert H. Jernajczyk W. Zakladu EEG/EMG Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Norms of EEG sleep patterns for healthy Polish population aged from 20 to59].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):501-9, 1992. Norms of sleep EEG patterns for a healthy population aged from 20 to 59 years are presented from which it was concluded that this age group forms a relatively stable pattern during the ontogenesis of sleep. The collected data were compared with data found in the literature.
Ignatowiczowa L. Ignatowicz R. Michalowicz R. Poradni Psychiatrii Dzieciecej Kierownik, Szpitala-Pomnika Centrum ZdrowiaDziecka, Warszawie. [The examination of mental status of children with multiple sclerosis].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):491-9, 1992. Assessment was conducted on 50 children with multiple sclerosis ranging in age from 3 to 16 years. The aim of the study was to the discover how they deviate from the norm in their mental status. It was concluded that the most frequent symptoms in this group of children, were various disorders in the impulsive--emotional sphere. It was noted that with time the chance of organic pathology increases.
Banas A. Januszkiewicz-Grabias A. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychiczych AM, Gdansku. [An attempt to formulate prognosis for anorexia nervosa on the basis offollow-up data].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):483-9, 1992. Follow-up data in the form of questionnaires were collected from 38 patients (36 women, 2 men) who had been treated for anorexia nervosa at the First Clinic of Mental Diseases of the Academy of Medicine in Gdansk from 1972 to 1988. The period of time of the follow-up was from 3 to 16 years. Adequate information was received from 16 patients (42%). One of the patients died and one was found to have developed a schizophrenic process. The 14 female patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (7 persons) included patients whose anorectic symptoms abated. Three patients married and had children, five worked professionally. In group 2 (7 persons) anorectic symptoms persisted in a lesser degree. Two patients married and had children, five worked and two were on disability pensions. An analysis of both groups revealed that factors associated with poor prognosis in group 2 were: low motivation for accepting treatment, personality disorder partly due to organic factors, the use of laxatives and diuretics, continuing conflictive situations.
Banas A. Januszkiewicz-Grabias A. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Anorexia nervosa in a case of severe personality disorder].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):477-82, 1992.
Komender J. Jagielska G. Ruszkowska E. Kliniki Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego A.M., Warszawie. [A follow-up study of adolescents after suicide attempts].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):469-75, 1992. Young persons who in the past attempted suicide show the following characteristics: 1. they unwillingly make contact with an agency which they had consulted or had been treated due to their suicide attempt, 2. often maintain suicidal thoughts , 3. they have a higher estimation of their psychosocial situation then an objective assessment would indicate, 4. their psychosocial functioning does not improve with time.
Namyslowska I. Witkowska-Ulatowska H. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawie. [Diagnosis of borderline disorder in children and adolescents].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):451-60, 1992.
Rutkowski R. Kliniki Psychiatrii Sadowej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [A study of involuntary treatment in psychiatric hospitals].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):287-300, 1992. May-Aug.Research revealed that the only documented form of forced treatment was the use of mechanical restraining of patients. The frequency and circumstances of restraining patients were highly dependent on, among others, the structure of employment of hospital personnel. Research was conducted on 6962 patients from 6 psychiatric hospitals. It was revealed that during a month mechanical restraint was used with 5.5% of the patients. This percentage wavered from 1.6% to 8% in different hospitals. Isolation was not used at all. The frequency and circumstances of using force was significantly related to age, sex, marital status, the length of hospitalization and the diagnosis of the patient. Furthermore, the number of staff and the structure of employment in particular hospitals was important. 
Rutkowski R. Kliniki Psychiatrii Sadowej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [A study of involuntary treatment in psychiatric hospitals].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):275-85, 1992. May-Aug.
Slupczynska-Kossobudzka E. Wierzbicki S. Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Chronic hospitalizations in Poland from 1980 to 1989. ].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):265-74, 1992. May-Aug.The aim of the following research was to present and try to explain the features of chronic hospitalizations in psychiatric hospitals in Poland during the 1980's. According to the definition adopted when working with inpatients, patients hospitalized for over one year are regarded as chronic. The percentage of chronic patients in the general patient population was found to be 8% of all hospitalizations. The largest number of chronically hospitalized patients was found among those diagnosed as mentally retarded (29%) and schizophrenic (15%). The least number of chronic hospitalizations was found among patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism (1%) and among the non-psychotic patients (4%). In the years 1980 to 1989. there was a systematic fall in the previously increasing rate of chronic hospitalizations of people diagnoses as non-alcoholic psychotic and mentally retarded to about 70% of the number registered at the beginning of the decade. The fall in the rate of increase of chronic hospitalization is mainly due to the fall in the rate of growth of the chronically hospitalized group. This fall is not significantly connected with the movement of patients to community based services or with the increased mortality rate during the 1980's. The causes of this phenomenon remain unanswered. It may be the result of the better and more accessible forms of treatment, such as intermediate treatment, which are an alternative to long-term hospitalizations. Another reason may be the more effective forms of hospital treatment and the fact that psychiatric hospitals are using the "revolving door" strategy.
Matkowski K. Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszczy. [Carbamazepine in the treatment of depressive syndromes].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):251-8, 1992. May-Aug.Carbamazepine treatment was used with 54 patients suffering from endogenous depression and organic depression. The anti-depressive effect was found to be the best in those patients with organic depression, while in endogenous depression it was better with bipolar affective disorder and with irregular EEG recordings.
Wojcik M. Bidzinski A. Slosarska M. Puzynski S. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej i Zakladu Biochemii Instytutu Psychiatrii iNeurologii, Warszawie. [Psychophysiological characteristics and metabolic indices ofneurotransmitter metabolism in patients ill with endogenous depression].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):185-95, 1992. May-Aug.Research was conducted upon 28 patients with a diagnosis of endogenous depression after their pharmacological treatment with imipramine or chlorimipramine. The investigation considered the interrelationship between psychophysiological parameters (heart rate, respiration rhythm, postural muscular tension) and the indices of the cholinergic and adrenergic systems (kinetic parameters of choline transport in the blood; Vmax, the activity of plasmic pseudocholinesterase, Che; blood acetylcholinesterase AChE, monoaminoxidase in blood platelets, MAO; and dopamine beta hydroxylase DBH). The results indicate that during relapse of endogenous depression there occurs an imbalance in the cholinergic-adrenergic systems which may be the result of some somatic symptoms typically found in the depression syndrome. The appearance, after pharmacotherapy, of a correlation between the indices of the activity of the cholinergic system with the respiratory rhythm suggest that the part played by the cholinergic mechanism in the regulation of autonomic processes normalizes itself during the course of successful therapy. The appearance of characteristic correlations between the activity of the cholinergic and adrenergic systems and the psychophysiological parameters in the presence of relatively low psychological stress seems to accompany successful treatment with imipramine and chlorimipramine.
Wielgosz M. Zakladu Farmakologii Akademii Medycznej, Lublinie. [The involvement of D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in the effects ofneuroleptics and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):357-64, 1992. The authors presents the literature concerned with the role of D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the effects of neuroleptics. The author concludes that substances which stimulate the D-1 receptors may decrease symptoms of schizophrenia and restrain the formation of tardive dyskinesia, whilst blocking the D-1 receptors may act anti-psychotically without causing tardive dyskinesia. However, they cannot be used with people because of their considerable toxicity. The introduction of new generation of neuroleptics. 
Danysz W. Kostowski W. Zakladu Farmakologii i Fizjologii Ukladu Nerwowego Instytutu Psychiatrii iNeurologii, Warszawie. [Sigma receptors: the key to therapeutic action or the side-effects ofneuroleptics?].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):365-72, 1992. The authors discuss psychotropic effects of phencyclidine (PCP) in the context of neurochemical mechanisms of schizophrenia. They concentrate on sigma receptors and PCP receptors and tie their activity with the dopaminergic system. The authors describe neuroleptic effects on sigma receptors and the therapeutic consequences. They include that the question whether the interaction of neuroleptics with sigma receptors results in therapeutic effects or rather in undesirable symptoms will decide about the future direction of treatment of schizophrenia. 
Jarosz M. Furgo-Olszewska M. Katedry i I Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Lodzi. [Syntonic phenomena, autism and proportion].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):313-26, 1992. The authors on the basis of extensive literature discuss the phenomenon of syntonia, autism and proportion in schizophrenia. Referring to their own research on the formation of different types of proportion, the authors define the understanding of syntonia and autism. 
Grodzka M. Szumbarska D. Puzynska E. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawie. [Autism, infantile: diagnostic aspects].Psychiatria Polska. 26(6):461-8, 1992. Autism is a rare disorder, whose frequency varies according to research from 0.7 to 4.5 per 10,000. The results of 40 children examined in the Out-patient Rehabilitation Union for Autistic Children showed that according to the DSM-III-R criteria 3 children suffered from autism. The authors suggest that the DSM-III-R criteria are either not known to the diagnosticians or are not used in the diagnosis.
Habrat B. Bidzinska E. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Disability among patients with affective disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 26(3-4):215-22, 1992. May-Aug.In a group of patients with affective disorder it was found that the frequency of formal handicap occurred in 29.8% of those subjects. This was observed mainly in women and mostly with those diagnosed as bipolar affective disorder (43.6%). Patients with an alcohol problem more often were on social security pension.
Skrzydlewska E. Zakladu Analizy Instrumentalnej AM, Bialymstoku. [The influence of disulfiram on the metabolism of ethanol].Psychiatria Polska. 26(5):421-9, 1992. The author discusses the metabolism of disulfiram and the enzymes which metabolize ethanol. The restraining of the activity of ALDH in the liver by disulfiram causes an accumulation of acetaldehyde which in their turn cause a series of psychophysical symptoms which are unpleasant and in some instances dangerous for the patient. Thus, it is important to monitor changes in the activity of ALDH after administration of disulfiram. 
Stomma D. Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Autism in children].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):125-9, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Horodnicki JM. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej, Szczecinie. [Further development of a computer program for supporting psychiatricdiagnosis and choice of therapy].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):18-23, 1992. Jan-Apr.The algorithm grouping the patients into natural subsets, according to their psychopathological features or results of laboratory examinations, was extended by a software enabling the allowance of a new patient to the nearest subset taking into account any features describing the representative set. Apart from that the system was extended by a software of multi-criterion assessment of drug usability in empirical subsets of patients. It was found out that the developed information system makes it possible to assess such relations between the features of the examined phenomenon that would not be noticeable without using the system.
Hese RT. Oddzialu Psychiatrycznego Szpitala Gorniczego, Bytomiu. [Salivation test in patients with affective disorders treated withamitriptyline, mianserin and electroconvulsive therapy].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):29-36, 1992. Jan-Apr.The aim of this work was assessment of the peripheral anticholinergic effects by use of a salivary test in patients with depression on the background of affective disease, treated over four weeks in a psychiatric department by one of three methods: amitriptyline, mianserin or nondominant unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (NDULECT). There were 22 patients treated with amitriptyline, 26 mianserin and 20 by NDULECT. The degree of depression was assessed by Hamilton's scale of depression and was similar in the groups of patients compared. Also the amount of saliva excreted was similar in the material examined before treatment. Among the methods of treatment the most severe inhibition of salivation was noted in the group treated with amitriptyline, the least--after NDULECT. Mianserin reduced salivation to a small degree--taking up a middle position in the comparison of methods of treatment. Practically speaking there is a conclusion: in patients whose somatic condition contraindicates, during treatment of endogenous depression, unwanted symptoms occurring after inhibition of the cholinergic receptor, the most acceptable of the three methods would be the use of mianserin or NDULECT.
Galuszko P. Landowski J. Nowicki Z. Galewska D. Krzysztofik M. Lamparska E. Trojanowski L. Zakowski W. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Depressive syndromes in patients dependent on alcohol with regard to mentaldisorders in the family].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):61-5, 1992. Jan-Apr.We looked for the present and past history of functional disorders, especially mood disorders among 215 inpatients with diagnosis of alcohol dependence using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia--Life-time Version (SADS-L). This same was determined in their first degree relatives using Family History--Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH--RDC). The incidence of mood disorders among probands was rather low--9.8% (bipolar--0.9%, recurrent depression--2.8%, minor depression--6.0%), the occurrence of other functional disorders was much more rare: 2 patients--panic disorder, 2--general anxiety disorders. Among first degree relatives only two had history of depression. The incidence of alcoholism was rather high, especially in men.
Gromska J. Psychiatryczno-Neurologiczny ZOZ, Gdansku. [Psychopathologic analysis of Sylvia Plath's personality on the basis ofletters to her mother].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):138-45, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Gromska J. Psychiatryczno-Neurologicznego Zespolu Opieki Zdrowotnej, Gdansku. [The ideal of mental health in Plato's model of society (on the basis of 10polytheistic volumes)].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):130-7, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Strzyzewski W. Jaracz J. Rajewska J. Szajnerman Z. Rozek B. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Poznaniu. [Studies of neurophysiological reactivity and level of activation of thecentral nervous system in endogenous depression and circulatory systemdisturbances].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):10-7, 1992. Jan-Apr.The aim of the study was to assess the neurophysiological factors of simple and complex reactivity of central nervous system in a group of 30 patients treated with endogenous depression and showing circulatory system disturbances, and in a group of 30 patients showing no such somatic problems. The findings showed that the simple and complex reactivity testing can be considered an important and sensitive indicator of the endogenous depression intensity, characteristic of additional circulatory system disturbances and "organic" basis of depression. Any improvement in the circulatory system disturbances and anti-atherosclerotic effect in elderly people should be taken into account.
Witorzenc M. Specjalistycznego Psychiatrycznego ZOZ-u, Lodzi. [Psychopathologic picture of patients displaying resignation reactions duringrepeated dialysis treatment].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):104-9, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 64 patients dialyzed because of a chronic insufficiency of kidneys was examined. Among 57.8% of patients various resignation reactions were noticed. In most cases these reactions were accompanied by depressive syndrome. The occurrence of the syndrome had some influence on the length of the patients' lives.
Witorzenc M. Specjalistycznego Psychiatrycznego Zespolu Opieki Zdrowotnej, Lodzi. [Psychiatric aspects of repeated dialysis treatment].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):110-4, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Witorzenc M. Specjalistycznego Psychiatrycznego ZOZ, Lodzi. [Adaptation of patients with chronic kidney insufficiency to repeat dialysistreatment].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):115-8, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Rembowski J. Instytutu Psychologii Uniwersytetu Gdanskiego. [Loneliness].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):119-24, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Dabrowski S. Ignaczak M. Walczak S. Wardenski R. III Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Some factors influencing psychiatrists' and psychologists' opinions aboutdangerous behavior].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):146-50, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Kwiecinska E. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej AM, Lodzi. [Smoking cigarettes and psychiatric disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):151-4, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Barbaro B. Cechnicki A. Katedry Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej, Klinika Psychiatrii Doroslych,Krakowie. [Possibilities of reducing psychiatric hospitalization from systemic andsocial perspectives in psychiatry].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):155-9, 1992. Jan-Apr.
Szakowski A. Horodnicki JM. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii PAM, Szczecinie. [Psychopathologic picture of depression and the conduct of some hormone testsand the therapeutic response to thymoleptics].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):24-8, 1992. Jan-Apr.Psychopathological picture of depression and the conduct of some hormone tests vs the therapeutic response to thymoleptics were examined. On the grounds of some diagnostic criteria, 84 patients with affective psychosis were divided into three diagnostic groups: unipolar (DJ, n = 54) and bipolar (DD, n = 20) endogenous depressions and non-endogenous depression (DN, n = 10). The control group (GK, n = 25) consisted of mentally healthy people. Hormone tests TRH and ITT were performed before and after the treatment. The hormones: TSH, T4, T3, PRL, GH, and CORT were marked by RIA methods. The findings of the examination, after being statistically described and thoroughly discussed, show that they could be useful in differential diagnosis of affective illnesses and in prognosis of therapeutic response.
Rajewski A. Szajnerman Z. Rajewska J. Strzyzewski W. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Poznaniu. [Biochemical evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in the course ofdepressive syndromes in patients with cardiovascular disturbances].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):3-9, 1992. Jan-Apr.The paper analyses correlation between depressive syndromes and lipid metabolism and circulatory system disturbances. Two groups of patients with depression were compared. The first of them consisted of patients with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, in the other group there were patients with normal risk of atherosclerosis. It was found out that the most frequent parameter of lipid metabolism disturbances is cholesterol HDL fraction. Lipid metabolism disturbances in depression are larger in patients suffering from circulatory system disorders. The authors recommended to combine the treatment of depression with applying medicines counteracting lipid metabolism disturbances in patients having greater risk of atherosclerosis.
Sep-Kowalikowa B. Prokopowicz A. Pankiewicz P. Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Weight gain during antidepressant therapy].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):37-43, 1992. Jan-Apr.Changes of weight were assessed within a population of 329 patients with major depressive disorders and neurotic states, treated with amitriptyline, doxepin, insidone and imipramine. It has been found that the most important increase of body weight occurred in the groups of patients treated with amitriptyline and doxepin. In the group of insidone the increase of weight was not so high as in the previous groups. The patients treated with imipramine lost weight in the first three weeks of the treatment. No relationship between the increase of body weight and diagnosis, doses of antidepressants, age, sex and education has been observed.
Zyss T. Hassler F. Oddzialu Neuropsychiatrii Dzieciecej Kliniki Psychiatrii i NeurologiiUniwersytetu, Rostocku. [Quantitative evaluation of motor activity of children with hyperkineticsyndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):44-50, 1992. Jan-Apr.Quantitative assessment of children's motor activity is necessary to objective classification of children according to their motor activity. The authors of the study made a quantitative assessment of motor activity of 55 boys in the age from 8-12, with normal IQ, using motor-scopic-motor-metric method. Global motor activity was assessed together with the activity of the head, trunk, and limbs, in such testing situations as sitting, standing, lying, and reading. It was found out that quiet children make 6.4 movements per minute, and hyperkinetic children make 21.4 movements per minute. Assessment of motor activity of upper limbs (arms, hands, fingers) is a sufficient factor to assess motor activity of children and verify their hyperkinetic syndrome. In such conditions 3.1 movements per minute is a borderline for quiet children and 6.4 movements per minute for hyperkinetic children. It was found out that the growing-up process leads to lessening of motor activity, especially in hyperexcitable children.
Hauser J. Jaracz J. Zelechowska-Ruda E. Suwalska A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Poznaniu. [Usefulness of Widlocher scale in assessment of psychomotor activitydisorders in endogenous depression].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):51-5, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 50 patients with a diagnosis of affective disease was examined. Dependence between the intensification of depression psychomotor activity measured according to Widlocher scale was established. Neurophysiological factors (such as thinking productivity, letter drafting, tapping test, simple reaction time) correlated with the intensification of psychomotor activation disorders.
Hauser J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Poznaniu. [Depressive disorders with psychomotor activity in patients with alcoholdependence syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):56-60, 1992. Jan-Apr.In a group of 85 men with alcohol dependence syndrome occurrence of depressive symptoms was examined and the intensification of psychomotor activation disorders was assessed. 60% of patients showed symptoms of depression during alcohol intoxication. Relationship between the intensification of depressive symptoms and psychomotor activity disorders was testified.
Tyra TL. Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych A.M., Bialymstoku. [Personality features of spouses married to depressive partners].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):66-70, 1992. Jan-Apr.30 married couples in which one spouse was hospitalized with a diagnosis of depressive syndrome testified by psychological tests (ACL, MPI, STAI, Self-perception Sheet, Zung SRDS) were examined. Taking into account the literature concerned with the role of improperly functioning couples, the author of the study tried to determine the influence of the healthy spouse's personal character and his/her patterns of behavior on their ill partners. It was found out that the mechanism of the relationship is different depending whether the patient is a wife or a husband. The healthy spouse's mental balance had a positive influence on the patients, independently of sex. A higher level of symptoms and depressive behavior of men was connected with good functioning and adaptation of their wives. On the other hand, the women were having more depressive symptoms if their husbands were submissive and emotionally unstable. It might be connected with the ill spouse's feeling of failing as a wife or husband. The findings may be important for the family therapy of depressed people.
Stomma D. Grzegorczyk J. Niedzielska A. Osiecka-Doniec E. Puzynska E. Sredniawa H. Witkowska H. [Siblings of children with a serious mental handicap (psychologic-psychiatricevaluation)].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):71-7, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 150 siblings of children with serious mental handicap was examined. It was established, that frequency of occurrence of psychiatric disorders in this group was no more often than in general population.
Barbaro B. Katedry Psychiatrii A.M., Krakowie. [Influence of family factors in the first occurrence of psychiatrichospitalization of patients suffering from schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):78-85, 1992. Jan-Apr.The paper is an empirical verification of a thesis according to which inter-family factors decide, to a large extent, about the psychiatric hospitalization of patients suffering from schizophrenia. On examining a population of 48 patients hospitalized for the first time because of schizophrenia and their families, it turned out that the family slowness in reacting to psychosis (defining the changes in the patient's behavior as morbid, and looking for a medical assistance occurred too late) is connected with a particular constellation of the family factors "Sluggish" families are mainly those with a lack of feelings, or families "fighting by the child". Initiative of seeking the help was triggered by the patient's behaviour that, from sociological point of view, could be characterized as rebellion and alienation.
Terminska K. Wisniewski K. Mrowiec W. Stoklosinska G. I Kliniki Psychiatrii Slaskiej AM, Lublincu. [Some intellectual factors and the clinical picture during the firsthospitalization of schizophrenic patients].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):86-90, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 62 patients treated with schizophrenia for the first time was examined. Connection between the IQ, the type or interests, Bleulers' primary symptoms and Schneider's criteria was analyzed. A number of dependence factors were discovered, what allowed to draw conclusions about the role of intelligence and interest in patients' first manifestation of schizophrenia.
Mikulska-Meder J. Zakladu Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawie. [Social functioning of patients with schizophrenia who are employed andunemployed].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):91-6, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 130 patients having been treated with schizophrenia for at least 5 years was examined. The patients were trying to get a job after at least one year leave. All subjects were examined twice: at the time of looking for a job and two years later. Adaptability level and the course of employment during the period of two years were assessed. It was found out that 40% of patients continued work after two years but majority of those were working in firm for disabled people. Professional work positively influenced the patients' self-dependence. It was proposed to motivate all patients treated with schizophrenia to start professional work.
Mikulska-Meder J. Zakladu Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawie. [Clinical state of patients with schizophrenia who are employed andunemployed].Psychiatria Polska. 26(1-2):97-103, 1992. Jan-Apr.A group of 130 patients having been treated with schizophrenia for at least 5 years was examined. The patients were trying to get a job after at least one year leave. All subjects were examined twice: at the time of looking for a job and two years later. Mental state, the course of the disease, and the employment during the period of two years were assessed. It was found out that 40% of patients continued work after two years but majority of those were working in firm for disabled people. Professional work positively influenced the patients' mental state, namely the psychopathological symptoms occurred less often in patients working professionally. No differences were spotted in the number and the general length of hospitalization during two years of catamnesis between the working and unemployed groups. It was proposed to motivate all patients treated with schizophrenia to start professional work.