Leder S. Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Unemployment and health].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):651-66, 1994Reviews of the literature on the relationship between unemployment and psychological and physical health point clearly to the fact, that loss of employment has a negative influence on the state of health of the unemployed and increases the signs of pathology. The negative influence of unemployment on health is seen mainly among the long-term unemployed, for young people who cannot find a job after finishing their education and for their family members. The range and extent of the negative consequences are various. They depend on socio-demographic, personality, situation and time factors and on the existing social support systems. A number of theoretical concepts (eg. of stress, life events, inability to fulfil latent psychological functions, the role of social structures etc.) are used to explain the mechanisms of the negative psychophysiological changes, connected with unemployment. However, it is possible, that the main role is played by an interaction of various factors, which influence the development of social and health related pathology. This indicates the necessity of creating detailed and varied programmes for prophylactics and treatment, based on scientific research. This is particularly important in Poland. Here the percentage of unemployment is very high. Unfortunately neither the Community, nor the political and administrative organs (including the Health Service) are equipped to cope with this new problem. To this must be added the lack of sufficient research, and inadequate knowledge about how unemployment spreads and about its consequences. 
Jarzebska E. Katedry Neurologii AM, Wroclawiu. [Behaviors connected with emotions in supporting psychotherapy of chronicneurological patients].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):711-8, 1994The examination of 8 behaviors connected with emotions during supporting psychotherapy of 75 chronic neurological patients was performed. We estimated correlations between examined behaviors. We maintain, that sympathy expressed to the psychotherapist is a stimulating factor and has a positive influence on the patient's mood. On the basis of functional analysis of the obtained correlations we established the main mechanisms of behaviors in the examined group.
Leszek J. Gasiorowski K. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Wroclawiu. [Neurotrophic growth factors in Alzheimer's disease].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):739-50, 1994In recent years disturbances in releasing neurotrophic growth factors have been viewed as one of the causes of the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is assumed that abnormalities concerning neurotrophic growth factors (e.g. disturbances in releasing them and (or a wrong response of nerve cells to released growth factors) may be co-responsible for the development of abnormal functions of recent memory or concentration. It is assumed that their role in neurodegenerative processes consists primarily of increasing the survival rate of nerve cells and exerting an effect on the transmitting functions of CNS neurons. Attempts made at present to use growth factors in A.D. with a view to increasing the survival rate of degenerating nerve cells and improving the transmitting functions of neurons will be continued in future in pace with the advancement of our knowledge of their mechanisms.
Bidzan L. Ussorowska D. II Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer's type].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):751-7, 1994A case-control study was conducted on 16 cases of probable Alzheimer's disease and 32 controls matched for age. The first control group was younger while the second was at the same age as patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The patients were diagnosed according to DSM IIIR criteria. Information was obtained on birth and childhood, medical and surgical history, exposure to various social, psychological and biological factors as well as a family history of dementia. A structured questionnaire based on the AMDP--system was completed. Some of the variables studied reached statistical significance. First of all the sum of unfavourable environmental factors taking place during the person's childhood and elderly was predictive. Also head trauma was more frequent in patients with dementia. The findings suggest a possible etiologic role for some environmental factors in dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
Sobow T. Kloszewska I. Liberski PP. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Akademii Medycznej Lodzi. [Amyloid plaque in selected neurodegenerative disorders of the centralnervous system].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):759-72, 1994In this paper a review of the most recent investigations of the pathology of amyloid and of amyloid plaque is presented. The purpose of this report is to describe various clinical conditions (including their etiopathology and clinical manifestations) in which amyloid deposits (especially amyloid plaques) are significant features of the disease. Similarly, to define the neuropathological picture of amyloid deposits, molecular composition of amyloid fibrils and the genes which encode them. 
Magiera P. Sep-Kowalik B. Pankiewicz P. Pankiewicz K. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Speech and thought disorder in frontal syndrome following subarachnoidhemorrhage].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):773-80, 1994Here is described a case of a patient suffering from cerebral hemorrhage resulting in the perforation of the third cerebral ventricle and massive damage of the frontal lobes in consequence of the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. After neurosurgical operation the patient's general state improved, but in spite of this he displayed symptoms of the frontal syndrome with many symptoms in the area of abstractional thinking and reflectiveness and a significant reduction of higher emotionality. Very interesting in this case is the neurolinguistic symptomatology. The rehabilitation and pharmacotherapy was very successful. This case is very interesting because it contains many of the symptoms called "frontal syndrome". It is also important to show the role of the frontal lobes in the integral process of mental life and in the role of the left hemisphere in the gnostic and coordinative processes of speech and other higher functions of the central nervous system.
Svoboda M. Uniwersytetu Masaryka, Brnie, Republika Czeska. [Hypnosis: alert or non-alert].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):729-37, 1994The article includes a review of literature and own studies about hypnosis considered from the point of view of the subject's alertness or non-alertness, his activity or passivity in the hypnotic state. Activity is considered as a construct describing behavioral and experiential dynamics. This includes the general reactivity and the level of spontaneousness and initiative. The author's studies refer to the influence of hypnotic behavior on the dimension alert-non alert. The following factors were found to be important subject's preconception of hypnosis, the kind of hypnotic procedure used, subject's hypnotic susceptibility, subject's personality traits, implicite demand characteristics of particular suggestions, specific explicit suggestions and subject's training.
Araszkiewicz A. Florkowski A. Lucki Z. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Lodzi. [Group psychotherapy of neuroses and personality disorders in regularsoldiers].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):719-28, 1994Environmental conditions cause neuroses and symptoms of personality disorders in regular soldiers. Military service in highly formalized and hierarchical conditions makes it impossible to: express emotions (particularly negative ones), to arrange one's own time, to choose the position and place of work. Another important psychotraumatic factor is excessive load of work and responsibility for the sake of "the service". Psychotherapy is the main part of neurotic and personality disorder therapy in regular soldiers. The social context is the bass for theoretical assumptions of psychotherapy carried out by the authors. Based on the theory of learning, the aims of the applied psychotherapy are: eagerness for the elimination of symptoms and changing the mode of behaviour. Group psychotherapy is carried out in stationary conditions, in groups of 8 to 13 patients, for 8-9 weeks. The applied methods are: debating psychotherapy, interaction-communicative methods, psychodrawing, musicotherapy, choreotherapy and relaxation techniques. As the result of the therapy, about 89% of symptomatic improvement and about 81% of the change of attitude and behaviour were obtained.
Hauser J. Szczepanska W. Glodowska A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Poznaniu. [Analysis of psychological data and social functioning in alcoholics].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):701-9, 199474 male alcoholics participated in a three years prospective study. We have analysed data that patients obtained after the detoxification and 1, 2 and 3 years after discharge. Patients were divided into groups according to drinking behaviour. The psychological assessment included the MPI-Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Q-sort self-esteem scale, Benton test and the WAIS. Social functioning was classified with reference to the Scale of Social Functioning. Our results indicate that the majority of patients presented disturbances in self-esteem and an increased level of neuroticism. These psychological parameters were not connected with a drinking or sober outcome. Our data suggest that the cognitive impairment in alcoholics is relatively constant and does not improve despite sustained abstinence. In the whole group social functioning was disturbed after a period of drinking and was significantly improved together with the duration of abstinence.
Magdon M. Kawecka-Jaszcz K. Klocek M. Lubaszewski W. Betkowska-Korpala B. I Kliniki Kardiologii Collegium Medicum UJ. [Characteristics of personality structure and neurotic disturbances inpatients with primary arterial hypertension].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):687-700, 1994The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of neuroses in an examined group of patients and to determine specific personality profiles in the group of men and women with primary arterial hypertension with or without coexisting neurosis. Data were collected from a group of 93 out-patients with primary arterial hypertension of the I and II degree according to WHO (51 men, mean age 47.9 years and 42 women, mean age 44.4 years). All subjects had secondary or university education. Neurotic disturbances were determined by the symptom check-list (version "S") and estimation of the personality structure was performed by the Cattell 16 Personality Factors test. The prevalence of neurotic syndromes was 33% in men and 45% in women. We have found a higher frequency of neuroses than in the population, in both men and women with primary arterial hypertension, who have had secondary education. Factor F- (desurgency) was dominant in the male group (p < 0.01) and factors: A+, I+, O+, Q4+, B-, C-, E-, F-, N-, Q1- were predominant in the female group. The subjects with primary arterial hypertension, but without neurosis were characterised by the following personality factors: men by A+, B+, F- Q2- and women by A+ and I+. Moreover affectothymia (A+) was more frequent in men than in women. The personality structure of men with primary arterial hypertension and concomitant neurosis was characterised by the following 16 PF test factors: C- (low ego strength) and O+ (to be apprehensive/guilt-proneness). Neurotic personality structure in women was described by the following 16 PF test factors: B- (less intelligent), C- (low ego strength), E- (submissiveness), F- (desurgency, sober), N- (artlessness, simple-minded), O+ (apprehensive/guilt-proneness) and Q4+ (high ergic tension). It is important, that the 16 PF test profile was different, both in hypertensive men and women and both with or without the presence of neurotic syndromes. This fact and the prevalence of neurosis among hypertensives should be taken into consideration in the psychologic approach and contemporary treatment of primary arterial hypertension.
Magiera P. Trojanowski L. Leszczynski L. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM Gdansku. [Acute non-allergic reaction after administration of penicillin as a factorin the occurrence of neurotic symptoms].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):677-85, 1994The effect of a acute non-allergic reaction occurring after injection of procaine penicillin on the occurrence of different neurotic symptoms is a subject of the paper. 31 clinical cases, in which during the penicillin treatment the said reaction took place, were analysed. It has been found that the most often found consequence of that treatment is conversive neurosis, and subsequently the hypochondriac syndrome. On an average an acute non-allergic reaction occurred after the sixth injection. In 94% of the patients the neurotic symptoms appeared immediately after the described reaction. A positive correlation between the patient's age and an intensity of the converse symptoms was found. The Hoigne'a syndrome was a strong mental trauma, and was treated as an allergic shock for all of the patients. The patients were afraid of the next injection and they all refused to give permission for the continuation of such treatment. Neurotic syndromes related to Hoigne's syndrome turned out to be prolonged with a tendency for relapses, and low susceptibility to different methods of treatment. The mechanism of non-allergic acute reaction after procaine penicillin and ways of its prevention are also discussed.
Aleksandrowicz JW. Hamuda G. Zakladu Psychoterapii Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [Symptom check-lists in the diagnosis and epidemiology of neuroticdisorders].Psychiatria Polska. 28(6):667-76, 1994Epidemiological studies related to the occurrence of neurotic disorders commonly use symptom check-lists. The results of such studies depend on, amongst others, the construction of the questionnaire and especially on the specification of the value of the questionnaire (GSI) which is determined as the boundary between the "psychophysiological" or organic symptoms and neurotic symptoms. A control study was carried out on the norms of two symptom checklists which have been used for many years in Poland: SCL-"S" (73 symptoms), most often diagnosed in neurotic patients, at the time of constructing the questionnaire and the SCL-"O" (the same 73 + 62 other symptoms). The criterion population was made up of 843 untreated subjects and 2026 patients of day-hospitals. The norms specified by the method of finding the "optimal cut-off point" were approx. 5% in the SCL-"S" and 3% in the SCL-"O" higher for the cohort of women than for men. According to those norms, about 30% of the untreated population gains the same result of Global Severity Index (GSI) as about 90% of patients treated for neurotic disorders and could be diagnosed as neurotic disorders. The GSI norms for the SCL-"S" more often indicated the existence of these disorders in the group of untreated women than in the men's group, while the norms of SCL-"O" indicate a similar frequency of the disease independently of the gender. The symptom frequency analysis presenting differences in the women (1165 ss.) and men (861 ss.) patient groups and lead also to the hypothesis on the dependency of such epidemiological data on the construction of the symptom check-lists--especially the number of variables concerning symptoms more frequent in the female and/or in the male populations.
Tyszkiewicz M. Ze Specjalistycznej Przychodni Lekarskiej w Gdyni. [Mikolajus Konstantinas Ciurlonis, visionary artist].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):635-40, 1994The author presents a very interesting account of the personality of M. K. Ciurlonis (1875-1911). He was regarded as a precursor of abstractionism and surrealism--"The poet of music and painting". Thousands of his music al compositions and pictures gave him a place among the very best of artists of Eastern Europe of his epoch. He used to say that the influence of music was shown in his paintings and the influence of paintings in his musical compositions. His own philosophy of art has been expressed in his letters written to his brother and to his bride whom Ciurlonis married after 11 years of rather platonic friendship (one year before his death). He was born in to a Polish family living in Eastern Poland. His first music teacher was his father, an organ player. A medical doctor, friend of Prince Oginski facilitated the young man to attend the palace orchestra and after that the prince who was also a musical composer and a lover of art, helped Ciurlonis to study music in the best schools in Warsaw and Leipzig. Since his childhood Ciurlonis loved to draw and to paint. After having finished his music study he spent some months studying in the Academy of Fine Arts and after that he sacrificed himself to both arts. Influenced by his bride he considered himself to be Lithuanian and worked very hard for the liberation of Lithuania. (250 WORDS)
Bomba J. Jaklewicz H. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy, Katedry Psychiatrii, CollegiumMedicum, Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego w Krakowie. [The dynamics of depression on children. A prospective follow-up study].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):523-33, 1994Prospective follow-up study of a group of 33 children diagnosed as socially and emotionally immature, and depressive at age 7 years were conducted. Results of assessment at 10 years of age revealed chronicity of depression in this group. Chronicity of depression was reflected in the change of symptomatology. The thesis about the dependence of depressive symptoms on the developmental stage was supported. Answers to the question about the nature of childhood depression should be looked for in farther longitudinal studies.
Pietruszewski K. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Katedry Psychiatrii, Collegium MedicumUJ w Krakowie. [Description of an adolescent psychiatric inpatients' families].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):535-46, 1994Detailed analysis of family dynamics of 63 adolescent psychiatric in-patients' families was carried out. The results of this project show indicate relatively more dysfunctional relations of the patient with other family members, especially with both parents. Also the study showed undifferentiated needs of family members' for co-operation and support from the psychiatric institution. Attitudes of resistance and anxiety in relation to psychiatry, which are still typical for Polish families at the end of eighties, were indicated.
Namyslowska I. Siewierska A. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy, Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii wWarszawie. [Anxiety in the family].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):547-55, 1994The authors present the conceptual framework of the development and transmission of anxiety in the family system based on M. Bowen and general system theories. Anxiety is conceptualized as the reaction of family members to the disturbance in relational balance within the family system. The hypothesis that blurred boundaries within the family system are responsible for development, transmission and maintenance of anxiety in the family system is presented and supported with clinical examples. The ways of transmission of anxiety within the nuclear family and the phenomenon of transgenerational transmission are described. At the end the authors discussed practical implications of the presented theory for family therapy. Work with families with high level of anxiety should support the development of clear boundaries within the family system which leads to processes of separation and autonomy of family members.
Jakobczyk H. Kliniki Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego AM w Warszawie. [Panic disorders of children: personal observation].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):557-66, 1994Two children with panic disorder (PD) have been presented: 12 year old boy and 9.5 year old girl. PD diagnosis was based on diagnostic criteria DSM-III-R. According to the literature a fully developed PD appears mainly after the 20th year of life. There is no mention made about PD relating to children. Our observations indicate that PD may appear as early as the 10th year of life. Analysis of these cases may support other authors' findings confirming that: etiopathogenesis of PD has a multifactor nature and psychodynamic mechanisms play a role in its apparition [13, 17]; release mechanism of panic reaction may be based on conscious or unconscious stimulation to day-dreaming, especially together with negative effect . Positive therapeutic result may be obtained by use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy [4, 16, 18].
Malkiewicz-Borkowska M. Namyslowska I. Osiecka-Doniec E. Puzynska E. Witkowska-Ulatowska H. Iwanek A. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii wWarszawie. [Premorbid adjustment of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):567-77, 1994Premorbid adjustment of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and its correlation with some clinical variables was assessed and compared with a group of 100 healthy adolescents. The hospitalized group of patients was divided into four diagnostic subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria of ICD 9: psychoses, neuroses, conduct and personality disorders and anorexia nervosa. The following assessment tools were used: Premorbid Adjustment Scale in Polish adaptation of A. Grzywa, List of demographic variables, List of Organic Risk Factors, Inventory of Developmental Psychopathology and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS). SPSS was used to analyze the results. The results confirmed the hypothesis of different levels of premorbid adjustment in hospitalized and healthy adolescents as well as in hospitalized adolescents and original control group of the research of A. Grzywa. Contrary to our expectations and data from the literature premorbid adjustment was lowest in the group of patients with conduct disorders and not as was expected in the group of psychotic adolescents. It was also confirmed that the differences in the level of premorbid adjustment between the group of hospitalized adolescents and control groups were smaller in the period of early childhood than in later developmental periods. Pronounced difficulties in adjustment were observed in all diagnostic subgroups in the period of late adolescence.
Wlodarczyk-Bisaga K. Bisaga A. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy, Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii wWarszawie. [Selected issues of biological aspects of eating disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):579-91, 1994This paper reviews the recent progress in the understanding of the neurobiology of the eating disorders. The analysis of the biochemical abnormalities present in the patients with bulimia nervosa indicates the decrease of central serotonin and noradrenalin activity, elevation of the levels of cerebrospinal fluid peptide YY, alterations of the endogenous opioids and also reduction of peripheral cholecystokinin levels. As these studies were performed on patients who were actively binging and purging it is conceivable that the above abnormalities can results from a pathological feeding pattern. It is also suggested that the reduction of central serotoninergic activity is the stable, trait-related dysregulation of neurotransmitter system activity. In patients with anorexia nervosa the endocrine disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes were thoroughly studied. Underweight anorectic patients have been found to have elevations of cerebrospinal fluid level of neuropeptide Y, corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin as well as reductions of beta-endorphin and oxytocin level. However, most of the neuropeptide alterations normalize following weight recovery. The only exception is a persistent increase of central serotonin activity postulated to be responsible for the obsessive-compulsive personality traits and disturbed eating behaviors found in these patients. 
Puzynski S. Rybakowski J. Kocur J. Rydzynski Z. Beresewicz M. Bogdanowicz E. Duszyk S. Gruszczynski W. Kalinowski A. Koszewska I. et al.II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej, Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [Clinical evaluation of fluoxetine].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):593-600, 1994The multicenter trials were performed in a group of 86 depressive inpatients (among them 64 with endogenous depression) managed with fluoxetine (Prozac). It was established that the drug is most effective in managing psychogenic depressions and may also be of use in endogenous depressions, among them in drug resistant ones. Tolerance to the drug was satisfactory, 62% did not show any unwanted side-effects. The rest of the group displayed sleep disorders, increased anxiety, lost of appetite and nausea. Changes in the laboratory parameters and non-specific changes in the electrocardiogram were observed sporadically. Fluoxetine seemed not to have any direct cholinolytic effect.
Eriksson E. Zakladu Farmakologii, Uniwersytetu w Goteborgu. [Clomipramine and other serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment ofdepressed mood, anxiety and impaired impulse control].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):601-12, 1994The antidepressive effects of substances which most likely increase the rate of monoaminergic neurotransmission by the antagonization of the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors has been know to exist for over thirty years. The role of both of these substances, serotonin and noradrenaline, in the function of these mechanisms is still, however, a matter of discussion. In the last ten years it has been shown that many antidepressive drugs are not only effective in the treatment of depression but also in the treatment of many other psychiatric disorders. These include for example panic anxiety attacks, compulsive-obsessive symptoms, premenstrual tension disorder etc. It appears from the treatment of these disorders that serotonin is of greater importance than noradrenaline. 
Araszkiewicz A. Florkowski A. Instytutu Higieny Psychicznej Wojskowej, Akademii Medycznej w Lodzi. [Procaine kindling in acute non-allergic reaction to procaine penicillin G].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):613-25, 1994On the basis of the analysis of acute nonallergic reaction to a course of procaine penicillin G, the authors have stated that symptoms of this reaction result from the irritation of temporal limbic structures. The authors think that it is connected with procaine kindling mechanism, the procaine component of the drug.
Blonska-Rudny J. Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Pomorskiej, Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie. [Hoigne syndrome and psychopathological issues].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):627-33, 1994This paper presents 3 cases of late psychopathological issues after the Hoigne syndrome. Acute egzogenous psychosis caused the anxiety-like disorder and was the reason for an endogenous psychosis of with a schizophrenia profile. There is a need for psychiatric care support in every case of Hoigne syndrome after acute episode of mental disturbance.
Gmitrowicz A. Kucharska A. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Katedry Psychiatrii AM w Lodzi. [Developmental disorders in the fourth edition of the Americanclassification: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM IV-- optional book)].Psychiatria Polska. 28(5):509-21, 1994In 1991. the American Psychiatric Association proposed a draft version of the IV edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--the DSM IV Options Book. Authors of this version wanted to increase clarity of the criteria sets and to provide compatibility with the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD - 10). The purpose of this Options Book is to propose some changes in wording, diagnostic divisions and to discuss various options concerning the placement of sections and disorders within the classification. The "Disorders of Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence" section was renamed "Disorders Usually First Evident in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence" and moved to the front of the classification and also was expended to 11 groups of disorders. Several suggestions have been made about including new diagnostic groupings such as: Rett's Disorder, Eating Disorders and Voice Disorder. The Options Book introduces a superior category for Attention Deficit Disorders (with and without hyperactivity) and for Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Several options are proposed regarding The Anxiety Disorders of Childhood or Adolescence. There is no evidence for a distinction in this category according to the age criterion. One option would be to move these disorders into the adult anxiety section (similarly as in the Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia). In the new version the title "Specific Developmental Disorders" is omitted. The suggestion is to include Phonological Disorder (Articulation Disorders) and Elective Mutism into Speech and Language Disorders section.
Beresewicz M. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [The use of carbamazepine in affective disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):455-66, 1994The normothymic effect of carbamazepine administered alone or in combination with lithium in patients with affective disorders was studied. The incidence and time-course of carbamazepine-induced side effects was analyzed.
Muskat K. Dymecka-Kuhn A. Krzyzanowska J. Wciorka J. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Out-patient care in the comprehensive treatment of psychotic patients:foundation, principles of work, experiences].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):385-93, 1994Basic assumptions and working-principles of complexive treatment of psychotic patients in a day clinic established at the sectorized psychiatric department serving for a population of ca 120,000 inhabitants are shortly described. On the ground of 5-year experiences some of observed processes and appeared difficulties as well as of crystalizing dilemmas connected with realisation of the therapeutic program are summarized.
Muskat K. Krzyzanowska J. Wciorka J. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Effects of therapeutic work with the families of psychotic patients treatedin a day clinic].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):395-406, 1994A clinical analysis of results of systematic and individualized therapeutic work with families of 217 psychotic patients comprehensively treated in a day clinic is presented. Cooperation with family was possible in the case of 150 (69%) of the patients. Seventy percent of them positively reacted to the invitation of cooperation. Members of 105 families were participating in psychoeducational meetings. In the case of 20 families other forms of therapy were also proposed (individual, marital, dyadic "parent-patient"). In the case of 77 families the cooperation attained degree of regularity which allowed to assess the occurring changes. Finally, in 54 of the families some benefits were noticed concerning both the families' and patients' functioning. In 4 families benefits concerned the families', but not the patients' functioning. In 16 families only less significant changes was observed, and in 4--none at all.
Muskat K. Dymecka-Kuhn A. Krzyzanowska J. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Therapeutic work with the families of psychotic patients treated in a dayclinic: selected illustrations].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):407-19, 1994Four case-studies illustrate the therapeutic work with families of psychotic patients comprehensively treated in our day clinic. Individualization of goals and principles of such therapeutic work was pointed out in relation to families' needs as well as to the possibility of establishing their cooperation in the treatment proposed. Processes of mutual changes in patients' and families' attitudes toward themselves and to the illness are described. Attention was paid to many difficulties associated with leading of this kind of therapy as well as to a variety of signs of its positive influence on patients' and their families' functioning. This influence became noticeable sometimes only from a long-term perspective.
Mazgaj D. Stolarska D. Zakladu Psychoterapii Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum, UniwersytetuJagiellonskiego i Wojewodzkiego Osrodka Leczenia Nerwic przy KrakowskimSzpitalu Neuropsychiatrycznym, Krakowie. [The model of functional disorders therapy in the out-patient clinic].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):421-30, 1994The authors present a comprehensive intensive treatment model of neurosis based on group therapy and on the therapy of psychogenic functional disorders (neuroses) conducted on a day ward. The paper presents the authors' own experience in the Regional Centre for the Treatment of Neuroses (a ward of the Krakow Neuropsychiatric Hospital).
Kubiak J. Zieba A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Doroslych Collegium Medicum UJ, Krakowie. [Out-patient care in the structure of psychiatric institutions].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):431-42, 1994The authors present models of functioning of hospital and out-patient psychiatric institutions, the problems faced in working together of the day treatment centre with other psychiatric institutions with special regard for the in-patient ward. The paper presents applied strategies of cooperation.
Bierkowska B. Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszczy. [Rapid cycling bipolar affective illness].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):443-54, 1994A subtype of rapid cycling bipolar affective illness (RC) is presented from an aspect of its clinical appearances pathogenesis and treatment. RC was defined in 1974 and will be included in DSM-IV. Patients with RC (4 or more episodes per year) make up about 13% of all subjects with bipolar affective illness. The majority of them are females and nearly half of RC patients have family history of affective illness. In 1/3 of patients, the illness begins with RC in young age, in the remaining this is preceded by several years of "normal" course. The induction of RC may be related to the administration of antidepressant drugs, mostly tricyclics; in some patients, such course may remit upon discontinuation or change of such drugs. The inducing factor may be organic brain impairment and also stressful events operating by means of the "kindling" mechanism. Other pathogenetic concepts of RC point to a role of thyroid pathology and disturbances of circadian and circannual rhythms. Variability of the course and dynamics of RC may be conceptualized within the framework of chaos theory. The best therapeutic results in RC are obtained by combined treatment with two mood stabilizing drugs (e.g. lithium and carbamazepine, lithium and valproic acid) or by a combination of mood stabilizing drug with hypermetabolic doses of thyroxine. 
Habrat E. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Life events in endogenous depression and drug resistance].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):467-77, 1994A relationship between the prevalence and type of life events and drug resistance in depression was not found. Life events were more frequent in women's group, especially over 45 years of age and during first and third depressive phases.
Magiera P. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Diagnosis and therapy of depression in consulting psychiatry on the basis ofown experience].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):479-87, 1994Against the background of the general specificity of consulting psychiatry, the author pays attention to the increasing number of consultations and the role of a consulting physician as an adviser, teacher and pupil of the treatment team. It has particularly meaning for the diagnosis of depression, especially masked depression and non-full symptomatic depression the diagnosis of which is still increasing in somatic departments.
Ekiert H. Jernajczyk W. Zakladu EEG/EMG Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawie. [Norms of EEG sleep patterns for healthy Polish population aged from 60 to 79years].Psychiatria Polska. 28(4):489-96, 1994Norms of sleep EEG patterns for a healthy population aged from 60 to 79 years are presented. The collected data were compared with data found in the literature.
Puzynska E. Grzegorczyk J. Sredniawa H. Niedzielska A. Osiecka-Doniec E. Stomma D. Witkowska-Ulatowska H. Borak J. Klinika Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawa. The mental health of offspring of patients suffering from endogenousaffective disorder (II follow-up study).Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):73-81,1994 In the offspring of patients with affective disorder various psychological disorders were found in 25% subjects. In offspring of healthy persons only 10% were found to have psychological disorders.
Loza B. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM, Lublinie. [A case of phantom syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):365-9, 1994The author discussed a case of the phantomatic syndrome. The paper suggests a close connection between the social stress and biological predispositions for the occurrence of the phantomatic syndrome. Some data making the grounds for concluding psychological mechanisms determining the onset were also considered. Attention was drawn to the fact that different mental mechanisms developed for the purpose of dealing with the conflict which took predominant positions in distinct stages. The phantomatic syndrome can be treated as an initial form of psychosis. The therapy of the phantomatic syndrome involves the following phases: (1) pharmacotherapy, (2) psychotherapy and sometimes (3) surgical procedure (e.g. plastic surgery operation) is required.
Dabkowska M. Rybakowski J. Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii AM, Bydgoszcz. Stress, depression and schizophrenia in view of psychoimmunology. Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):23-32,1994 The authors discuss the influence of stress on the immunological system. They describe changes in this system in depressive and in schizophrenic patients and analyze the eventual effect of these changes in the pathogenesis of endogenous psychopathology. The authors conclude that despite the fact that research into the immunology of these aspects are in the beginning stages, the data so far collected indicate a promising result. 
Gierowski JK. Zaklad Patologii Spolecznej Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ, Krakow. The role of anxiety in the genesis of an act of man-slaughter.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):101-12,1994
Szymusik A. Katedra Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ, Krakow. Self-regulation or self-excuse?.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):15-7, 1994
Dabrowski S. Insytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawa. Paternalistic personalism in Polish psychiatry.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):17-21,1994
Borak J. Cieslicki J. Szelenberger W. Wilczak-Szadkowska H. Koziej M. Zielinski J. Klinika Chorob Pluc Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc, Warszawa. Psychopathological characteristics of the consequences of obstructive sleepapnea prior to and tree months after CPAP.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):33-44,1994
Jarosz M. Katedra i I Klinika Psychiatrii AM, Lodz. Notion of psychopathological proportion and diagnostic progress inschizophrenia.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):45-51,1994
Bomba J. Humanistic values and respecting of human rights in oppressive conditions[editorial].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):5-15, 1994
Kiejna A. Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii AM, Wroclaw. The application of a computer data base in prospective study on the mortalityin schizophrenia.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):53-60,1994
Ekiert H. Jernajczyk W. Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Zaklad EEG/EMG, Warszawa. Norms of EEG sleep patterns for a healthy Polish population aged from 20 to59 years.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):83-91,1994 Norms of sleep EEG patterns for a healthy population aged from 20 to 59 years are presented from which it was concluded that this age group forms a relatively stable pattern during the ontogenesis of sleep. The collected data were compared with data found in the literature.
Sidorowicz S. Bem Z. Wasik A. Sasiadek M. Klinika Psychiatrii AM, Wroclaw. The reversibility of CT brain changes in alcohol dependence.Psychiatria Polska. 28(3 Suppl):93-9, 1994Control CT assessments of the brain of 15 alcohol dependent patients who showed an improvement in their clinical state were performed after a mean of 16 months. A partial decrease of the widening of cerebral sulci and the third ventrical was noticed. Also, the neuroradiological pictures of the vermis and cerebellum were seen to improve in most patients.
Zyss T. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego,Krakowie. [The technique of virtual reality: a new tool in research of the productivesymptoms in psychiatry].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):355-63, 1994The author presents the possibilities of the new computer technique of "virtual reality". It causes a nearly perfect "deception" of the central nervous function of the realising judgement and can be a tool in research among others into the perception and its disturbances, especially into the productive symptoms in psychiatry.
Kozielec T. Starobrat-Hermelin B. Kotkowiak L. Zakladu Medycyny Rodzinnej Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej. [Deficiency of certain trace elements in children with hyperactivity].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):345-53, 1994The magnesium, zinc, copper, iron and calcium level of plasma, erythrocytes, urine and hair in 50 children aged from 4 to 13 years with hyperactivity, were examined by AAS. The average concentration of all trace elements was lower compared with the control group--healthy children from Szczecin. The highest deficit was noted in hair. Our results show that it is necessary to supplement trace elements in children with hyperactivity.
Tyra TL. Zakladu Psychologii Ogolnej i Klinikznej, Wydzialu Pedagogiki i PsychologiiFilii UW, Bialymstoku. [Self-esteem of children from depressive families].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):335-44, 1994Parents are the first and the most important environment for the formation of children's self-esteem. The processes of identification with parents behaviours, attitudes, opinions and the world perceptions play the main role. Depression with its sadness, pessimism and negative self- and world-perception has significant negative impact on the intrapsychic processes of the child. The literature suggests that in depressive families the emotional communication is significantly disordered, the educational processes are inconsistent and the patterns of behavioural responses are under the impact of the illness. The aim of the study was the verification of the hypothesis that parent's depression negatively influenced the formation of self-esteem of the child. The results allow for the confirmation that the childrens self-portrait is lowered and that the self-esteem is often ambivalent. There were no significant relations between verbal and non-verbal self-esteem. There was no significant influence on the process of identification with the same gender parent (it was not important which parent is depressive). Due to the small group of children analysed these results are a preliminary evaluation of the problem.
Szubert S. Florkowski A. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Higieny Psychicznej Wojskowej AkademiiMedycznej, Lodzi. [Mentally ill patients' absconding from hospitals].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):329-34, 1994Based on 677 incidents of absconding from hospitals of patients with psychiatric disorders the authors stated that the escapes took place mostly among men aged 26-45 years, hospitalizated compulsorily with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and affective illness (manic phase). It was revealed that the most popular motivation of absconding in a group of women and men were sociopsychological factors.
Florkowski A. Caban J. Zboralski K. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Higieny Psychicznej Wojskowej AkademiiMedycznej, Lodzi. [Mental disorders in active service men as a reason for premature dischargefrom the army].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):321-7, 1994The authors, on the basis of analysis of medical records of 94 active service men hospitalized in the Department of Psychiatry, conclude that the frequency of premature elimination from the army was personality disorder (55.3%) and disadaptation syndromes (24.5%). Revealed in (94.7%) cases symptoms of disadaptation occurred during the first year of duty.
Rutkowski R. Szpitala Nowowiejskiego, Warszawie. [Does restriction of sexual freedom according to article 169 of the PenalCode serve the mentally ill?].Psychiatria Polska. 28(3):313-20, 1994Article 169 of the penal code imposes a ban on sexual contacts with a person, who is fully or to a significant degree deprived of the ability to recognize the meaning of his/her actions or to control his/her behaviour. A partner of a mentally retarded or mentally ill person, who engages fully in biologically and culturally appropriate sexual activity, can become criminally liable, receiving up to 10 years of freedom loss. The freedom of the insane and persons with strongly diminished mental ability is supposed to be a protected "good". The Polish Psychiatric Society tabled a motion in favour of abolishing this regulation, but the penal code reform committee did not accept this postulate. It is worth noting that sexual partnership constitutes both for men and women an irreplaceable human right. Nature itself does not exclude the mentally ill from the mystery of life which is unpredictab