Dabrowski S. Z Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [Mental health act. Basic problems and introduction into practice].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):721-30, 1995. The author presents three main goals of the Act: promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disturbances, providing the persons suffering from mental disturbances with comprehensive, commonly available health care and other forms of health care and other forms of help, as well as protection of human rights of persons with mental disturbances through reinforcement of observance of the hitherto binding laws and ensuring the rights of patients submitted to compulsory treatment.
Gierowski JK. Heitzman J. Rutkowski K. Z Zakladu Patologii Spolecznej Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [The concept of social network as an example of modern diagnostic processesin forensic psychiatry].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):731-42, 1995. The principles of using social network concepts in the aspect of current needs of modern forensic psychiatry in Poland were discussed. 
Michalska L. Z Zakladu Psychologii Osobowosci Instytutu Psychologii UAM w Poznaniu. [Psychological functions of deviation labels].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):743-50, 1995. The above article which refers to the theory of labeling presents psychological functions of label. There are four categories of labels which play four functions: categorative, cognitive, defensive and protective. Defensive function has been revised in detail. On analysing and reading some pieces of literature it has been proved that label can protect an individual against excessive requirements of the environment and it can also have stigmatization effect.
Heitzman J. Z Zakladu Patologii Spolecznej Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [PTSD--diagnostic criteria, clinical and certification application]. Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):751-66, 1995. Diagnostic criteria and difficulties in diagnostics of the disorders caused by psychophysical trauma were discussed. Diagnoses of KZ-syndrome, post-traumatic stress syndrome in DSM-III, DSM-III-R, DSM-IV and "post-traumatic stress disorder" in ICD-10 were submitted to comparative analysis. Possibility of application of PTSD diagnosis in disability certification as well as forensic psychiatry was confirmed. 
Lolas F. Gomez A. Barrera A. Jaar A. Orellana G. Suarez L. Nunez C. Wydzial Medyczny Uniwersytetu Chilijskiego w Santiago, Chile. [Suicidal behavior in Chilean women. The epidemiological web of societal andindividual factors].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):767-74, 1995. Presented study concerned epidemiology and psychological factors of suicide behavior aiming at establishing preventive measures and criteria for crisis intervention.
Zieba A. Dudek D. Jawor M. Z Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [Appraisal of social situation of patients with endogenous depression].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):775-82, 1995. This study presents the appraisal of social situation of male and female patients with endogenous depression in follow-up.
Malkiewicz-Borkowska M. Namyslowska I. Z Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy IPiN w Warszawie. [Chronic depression and marital relations].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):801-8, 1995. Authors analyzed the relation between dysfunctional marital interactions and chronic depressive symptoms.
Jodzio K. Nyka W. Tomczak H. Z Katedry i Zakladu Rehabilitacji AM w Gdansku. [Level of depression in outpatients with low back pain syndromes].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):809-18, 1995. There was significantly higher level of depression in chronic low-back pain patients than revealed in healthy subjects.
Slosarska M. Wojcik M. Z II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej IPiN w Warszawie. [The comparison of psychophysiological tension between patients with neuroticdepression and healthy subjects].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):819-26, 1995. It seems possible that lability of psychophysiological tension measured by W index indicates psychogenic etiology of the depressive syndrom.
Drozdz W. Rybakowski J. Z Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM w Bydgoszczy. [Quantitative and topographical analysis of EEG: its application in somepsychiatric disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):827-38, 1995. In this paper the issues of computer-assisted analysis of EEG, as a method of brain function imaging, are shortly discussed and the literature concerning research in some psychiatric disorders is reviewed. 
Koszewska I. Z Kliniki Psychiatrycznej IPiN w Warszawie. [Demographic and clinical features of patients with the change fromdepressive phase to manic phase and without change in the course of bipolaraffective disorder].Psychiatria Polska. 29(6):783-800, 1995. Patient's characteristic and clinical course of bipolar disorder with sudden change from depression to mania were analyzed. It was found that sex, age; number of previous manic episodes and switches may be predictive factors.
Parnowski T. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej IPiN, Warszawie. [Clinical picture of dementia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):593-605, 1995. Author presents a review of detailed psychopathological picture of dementia syndromes. Apart from memory impairment, a large, number of other symptoms regarding personality changes, perception and thought changes as well as disturbed behaviour must be taken into account. 
Bilikiewicz A. Katedry i II Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM, Gdansku. [Problems of psychogeriatrics].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):579-92, 1995. The author discusses the present state and needs of psychogeriatry in Poland. He considers the situation within the period of 33 years, which, in his opinion, has not been distinctly improved in spite of growth of old age disorders and various psycho-social threats connected with economical difficulties. The author discusses shortly the diagnostic criteria as well as the state of research on etiopathogenesis and treatment of the Alzheimer's disease.
Parnowski T. Gabryelewicz T. Kiedrowska A. Czyrny M. II Klinika Psychiatryczna Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawa. [Usefulness of CAMDEX test in the analysis of clinical picture of dementia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):607-18, 1995. Mild to moderate dementia fulfilling ICD-10 criteria and with MMSE score below 24 was analyzed in a sample of 46 randomly chosen elderly people. Selected scales derived from Polish version of CAMDEX and its cognitive section (CAMCOG) were used for assessment of clinical picture. Psychopathological symptoms, e.g., depression were frequent, especially in female group. According to the results of multivariate analyses of CAMCOG subscales, the most frequent symptoms in mild dementia were: the impairment of recent memory, Abstract thinking, and praxis (p < 0.001).
Gorna K. Rybakowski J. Katedry Pielegniarstwa Wydzialu Pielegniarstwa i Nauk o Zdrowiu, AM im.Karola Marcinkowskiego, Poznaniu. [Social functioning of patients with schizophrenia: a follow-up study].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):619-29, 1995. The subject of this study was evaluation of social functioning of schizophrenic patients after a period of ten to twenty years of follow-up. 70 patients (29 men and 41 women) selected from the initial group of 303 patients (181 men and 122 women), with the diagnosis of schizophrenia were studied. They had been admitted for the first time to the Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases in Gniezno in the years 1975-76. Examinations were carried in household environment (interviews with patients and their relatives), based on of a standardized questionnaire. In the examination, six realms of social activity were considered: professional occupation, home occupation, self independence, participation in family life, care for a child, social relations and interests. The level of social functioning in the examined group of 70 schizophrenic patients several years after the first psychiatric hospitalization has been found satisfactory in 57% patients. Women were functioning better, especially in the scope of participation in family life and fulfilment of home duties. Better level of social functioning was related to lower family history of mental illness, lower degree of invalidization, activity attitude towards the illness and positive self evaluation of the state of health, advantageous family situation, better fulfilment of social needs and lower family burden caused by the patient.
Zaluska M. IV Klinki Psychiatrycznej IPiN, Warszawie. [Methods of measurement of social adjustment in schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):631-40, 1995. Social functioning as well as reduction of psychopathological symptoms constitute basic criteria for evaluation of effectiveness of psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation. Social functioning is often estimated by measuring fulfillment of social roles as well as concurrent difficulties and behaviour of patients who can be troublesome to others-RASP, and SRPS scales (9, 20). KAS and SAS Scales (11, 21) focused on measuring social "adjustment" itself are being criticized. The LSP, SFS, ILLS (4, 15, 24) can be recognized as scales that are easy to use and adopted to the specific functioning of schizophrenics. These scales measure basic abilities needed for independent life outside mental hospital. They are being used for planning social rehabilitation and community care. 
Jarema M. Konieczynska Z. Glowczak M. Szaniawska A. Meder J. Jakubiak A. III Kliniki Psychiatrycznej IPiN, Warszawie. [The evaluation of subjective quality of life in patients with schizophreniaor depression].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):641-53, 1995. Subjective evaluation of the quality of life was studied in 53 schizophrenics (hospitalized, from the day-hospital, and from the rehabilitation unit) and in 12 depressed patients before and after pharmacological treatment or rehabilitation. The self-evaluation questionnaire SF-36 was used. The subjective quality of life of depressive patients at baseline was low in comparison to the schizophrenics. The best improvement of subjective quality of life after the treatment was found in hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Evaluation of the quality of life both before and after treatment/rehabilitation did not correlate with doctors' estimation of the severity of their illness. Depressive patients expressed more negative opinion regarding their physical condition and social activity than did the schizophrenics. The positive opinion on patients' health status correlated positively with good evaluation of patients' physical condition and good performance at home or work.
Kostecka M. Wojnar M. Marzanski M. Bernstein E. I i II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej, Warszawie. [On the need for spiritual help to patients with mental disorders].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):655-64, 1995. The article presents a psychotherapeutic and spiritual approach to psychotic patients. Theoretical assumptions and a practical application (implementation and results) are described on the basis of ten years' experience with an open religious group at the Psychiatric Department of Warsaw Medical School.
Wojnar M. Orlow-Trebicka A. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej AM, Warszawie. [The pathogenesis of persecutory delusions in the light of the attributiontheory].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):665-74, 1995. Among the present pathogenetic hypotheses of delusions the cognitive model based on the attribution theory presents interesting assumptions. The attribution theory describes the ways in which we explain causes of events and human behaviour from the point of view of common sense psychology, as well as biases found in explaining everyday events, known as attribution errors. One of them is self-serving bias, which protects self-esteem and distorts attribution processes. Kaney, Bentall and co-workers revealed the defensive attributional style in the patients with persecutory delusions and after empirical research they suggested that delusions are the extreme forms of self-serving bias. After presenting the studies of Kaney-Bentall the authors of the article express their doubts regarding attributional hypothesis of persecutory delusions. 
Wasilewski D. Matsumoto H. Kur E. Dziklinska A. Wozny E. Stencka K. Skalski M. Chaba P. Szelenberger W. Kliniki Psychiatrycznej AM, Warszawie. [Treatment of delirium tremens with quick administration of diazepam].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):675-86, 1995. In this efficacy the study of diazepam loading-dose treatment of delirium tremens was evaluated in comparison with traditional therapeutic methods. Experimental and control groups consisted of 42 and 40 patients respectively. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms was evaluated from clinical status, in the experimental group CIWA-A score was also employed. Study results suggest high efficacy of the loading-dose method, which was characterized by significant shortening of psychosis duration (five times shorter in experimental vs. control group). The method turned out to be safe, no complications were observed during and after the treatment.
Wehr H. Habrat B. Czartoryska B. Gorska D. Woronowicz B. Zespol Profilaktyki i Leczenia Uzaleznien Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii,Warszawa. [Urinary beta-hexosaminidase activity as a marker for the monitoring ofsobriety].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):689-96, 1995. The aim of this study was to check the usefulness of urine beta-hexosaminidase activity determination as a tool of monitoring sobriety in alcohol dependent individuals. The examinations were performed in 93 patients undergoing detoxification treatment after heavy drinking and in 29 individuals who were starting psychotherapeutic treatment after declaring at least 2 weeks abstinence period. Enzyme activity was determined using a spectrofluorimetric method and was referred to urine creatinine level. In the detoxification group the abnormally high beta-hexosaminidase activity was decreasing gradually toward normal values within 2 weeks. In less than 10% of the patients atypical increase was observed in the course of treatment, what could be attributed to an, influence of nonspecific factors or possibly to misbehavior (alcohol drinking or urine samples substitution). Among individuals who declared at least 2 weeks abstinence period (psychotherapeutic group) in 25% of cases abnormally high enzyme activity was detected, what suggested their more recent alcohol drinking.
Tyra TL. Zakladu Psychologii Ogolnej i Klinicznej, Wydzial Pedagogiki i Psychologii,Filii UW, Bialymstoku. [Fetal alcohol syndrome: neurobehavioral effects of prenatal alcoholexposure].Psychiatria Polska. 29(5):697-708, 1995. Alcohol has been established as a teratogenic agent that in prenatal exposure can cause a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes depending on dose, timing, and conditions of exposure. Although alcohol, like many other teratogenes, can cause alterations in morphology, growth, and neurobehavioral outcomes, this report focuses primarily on the latter effects. As with other teratogens causing neurobehavioral aberrations, the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal alcohol are produced at lower exposure levels than the morphologic or growth effects, and except in extreme cases, they are more devastating to the offspring. Neurobehavioral effects are difficult to measure, however, because their manifestations change with the age of the offspring, and because, at the current state of art, their measurement involves outcomes that can be exacerbated or ameliorated by postnatal experience. This report describes results of the studies on the long-term developmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure.
Jodzio K. Katedra i Zaklad Rehabilitacji AM w Gdansku. [Neuropsychological description of memory impairment following cortical andsubcortical brain injuries].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):491-501, 1995. This article, basing on experimental analysis and clinical observations, focuses on the role of subcortical structures in memory processes. It explained terminological problems and defined terms of memory: immediate, delayed, recent, remote, declarative and procedural. The present article pointed out functional hemispheric specialization as a predicator of material-specific forms of memory. Neuroanatomical basis was revealed, especially limbic system with its connections to prefrontal, cortical and brain stem regions. Amnesic Korsakoff and Wernicke syndromes, transient global amnesia, memory loss after bilateral damage of temporal lobes and after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture, were also discussed. Next part exhibited current knowledge about definition of dementia which may be caused by many multi-focal brain diseases like multiinfarct (vascular) dementia, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, and sclerosis multiplex, and compared to Alzheimer disease. Term of dementia was defined, according to Cummings and Benson, as syndrome of acquired intellectual dysfunction when three of the following mental functions are impaired: language, memory, visuospatial skills, emotion, and cognition (abstraction, calculation, judgement). There is little doubt that various subcortical diseases are characterised by similar, no specific dysfunctions of cognitive processes including: disturbed attention and concentration, slowness of mental processing, forgetfulness, personality alterations and mood disturbances as well as motivational impairment, visuospatial disturbances, absence of symptoms of cortical dysfunction such as aphasia, agnosia and apraxia and associated motor disorder. Review of the literature suggests that rapid forgetting and retrieval deficits are most often symptoms of memory deficits observed after subcortical brain injuries. 
Rosnowska M. Langer D. Cendrowski W. Zakladu Biochemii Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [Serum lipid peroxides in alcoholic patients].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):539-46, 1995. The study presents the estimations of serum lipid peroxide (LPx) concentrations in alcoholic patients during acute ethanol intoxication and in abstinence period. The increase of lipid metabolism in alcoholic drunkenness suggests that LPx plays marked role in this turnover.
Mausch K. Katedry Medycyny Spolecznej Pomorskiej AM w Szczecinie. [The psyche, the immunological system and problems of health and disease].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):435-41, 1995. Psychoneuroimmunology is a new tendency in the science, which integrates medicine and the social sciences. Interdisciplinary point of view on the etiology and the treatment of the many diseases fortifies the empirically holistic conception. Which is very old in medicine. The disease is the result of the collapse of the defensive mechanism in stress. The nervous, hormonal and immunological systems are integrated. The social environment and stress influence the individuals personality and cause diseases. The difficult situations, for instance: death of a close person divorce, examination, solitude etc., frequently cause immunosuppression. Psychotherapy can "wake" up the immune system.
Brzezinski R. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej w Bydgoszczy. [Two decades of the concept of alexithymia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):443-54, 1995. In the early 1970's, American researchers Sifneos and Nemiah, using the results of there own studies and those of Ruesch, McLean, Marty and others, proposed an original concept of psychosomatic disorders, called the concept of alexithymia. It has become very popular in many research centres in the USA, Germany and Italy. The concept has been based upon the role of the so called alexithymic personality traits, which were found more often in patients with psychosomatic disorders than in other patient populations. Alexithymia (lack of words for emotions) has been defined as a set of psychological dispositions due to specific deficits in emotional and cognitive areas. Persons with alexithymic features present difficulties in perception and verbalization of emotions, cannot distinguish between vegetative feelings and emotions, and possess externalistic, outwardly directed cognitive style. Initially, alexithymia was linked to the etiology of psychosomatic disorders. Later, it was found in other pathological conditions such as somatization disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and substance abuse, neuroses and also in normal population. The origin of alexithymic features is seen as the dysfunction of limbic system, abnormal cerebral lateralization as well as disturbances in early learning of verbal and emotional associations. Alexithymic traits are also regarded as a specific homeostatic mechanism allowing for nearly normal functioning at expense of somatization. Twenty years after, the concept of alexithymia is still a focus of interest in many scientific centres. The most active is a Canadian research group, the authors of Toronto Alexithymia Scale, which is now considered the best measuring tool for alexithymia. Alexithymia has now been regarded a permanent personality trait and alexithymia theory can make a new psychosomatic paradigm.
Dosiak M. Oddzialu Psychiatrycznego Szpitala Miejskiego Nr 1 w Chorzowie. [Schizophrenia: one or two psychoses? Positive and negative symptoms].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):455-64, 1995. In this paper are presented conceptions of the twofold idea of schizophrenia as disease of two types dependent on positive or negative symptoms. Actual examination of fundamental research about the fluctuating of brain turnover of neurotransmitters confirm Crow's theory of selected two types of schizophrenic patients. In conclusion the results suggest that, depending on the course of schizophrenia, individual and multiplex forms of treatment including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and psychosocial effects are required.
Gmerczynski M. Oddzial Psychiatryczny Szpitala im. dr. Urbanowicza w Chorzowie. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of endogenous psychoses].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):465-70, 1995. This paper describes development of concepts of diagnosis and differential diagnosis between endogenous psychoses: schizophrenia and depression. It explains the most important concepts of classification founded on different assumptions. Essential factors which influence diagnosis and differential diagnosis such as prognostic, psychopathology, drug response and anatomopathology were presented. Apart from concepts presuming exact differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and depression, more current resolution of the problem was presented: differential typology instead of differential diagnosis. The conclusion is that classification which closely relates diagnosis to clinical practice (treatment) is most valuable.
Janczur-Bidzan M. Instytutu Psychologii Uniwersytetu Gdanskiego. [The influence of infertility on women's personality].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):471-8, 1995. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze several personality dimensions including several psychopathological symptoms of women experiencing infertility. 70 females experiencing infertility and 50 healthy women were examined using psychological methods: MMPI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger, Gorsuch and Lushene. Personality profiles did not differ significantly for the two groups (remained within normal limits). In comparison with healthy women, women treated because of infertility displayed significantly higher level of anxiety as a state.
Popek L. Zydowicz M. Wojewodzkiego Osrodka Lecznictwa Psychiatrycznego w Toruniu. [Case study of an anxious child].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):479-89, 1995. Separation and individuation process ceases to be physiological when the family does not furnish the child with a feeling of security. Very often it becomes the main reason for the development of fears, including separation fear. The described study of the child suffering from separation fear testifies to a strong interrelation between the attitude of the parents, their volatile feeling of security, an the fear developed by the child. It also demonstrates the influence of the generic families on the current family situation. All these factors prove that there should be a strong relation between the child therapy and the family therapy. All the described forms of therapy account for work with the child in the conditions of the day ward according to the Good-Start Method, V. Sherborne, group therapy and system family therapy. The interesting point is the stage at which the family decides to undergo the therapy and consequently break it up.
Banas A. Korczak A. Lemanska M. Katedry i I Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM w Gdansku. [Psychoorganic and depressive syndrome in severe hepatic diseases].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):503-12, 1995. Authors present the occurrence of the psychopathologic disorders in the group of 33 patients (23 women and 10 men) with severe hepatic disorders (mostly cirrhotic non-alcoholic). Patients in the 20-69 age range were treated in the Medical Academy in Gdansk in the years 1989. -1993. 15 patients were examined twice at intervals from 6 months to 3 years. Using the Hamilton Depression Scale and psychiatric examination, the authors found depression in 5 cases. These patients were treated with thymoleptic. On the basis of the Organic Brain Damage Rating Scale (by Jarema M. and others) and psychiatric examination, the psychoorganic syndrome was confirmed in 4 cases. Correlation between the psychopathologic disorders and changes in some biochemical indicators was not found.
Zyss T. Witkowska B. Jarosz J. Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: EEG, serum prolactin andcortisol studies in humans].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):513-27, 1995. Ten adult volunteers had EEG recordings and serial serum prolactine/cortisol estimations performed during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. No significant changes in either the hormone values or in the EEG traces were detected.
Loza B. Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii AM w Lublinie. [A case of serotonin syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):529-38, 1995. A minority of patients treated with serotonergic agents develop a fulminant and potentially life-threatening illness characterized by changes in mental status, restlessness, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, tremor, shivering, incoordination, hyperthermia, diaphoresis and diarrhea. This condition of serotonergic hyperstimulation is called the "serotonin syndrome". The author describes an adverse response in a patient given fluoxetine and lithium. A 61-year-old woman presented to casualty exhibits nearly all of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Sternbach .
Abczynska M. Terminska K. Oddzialu Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego Wojewodzkiego SzpitalaNeuropsychiatrii w Lublincu. [Psychopathological symptoms in atypical viral hemorrhagic tick-borneencephalitis].Psychiatria Polska. 29(4):547-51, 1995. A 17 year old boy was admitted because of symptoms of a catatonic syndrome. During the diagnosis we ascertained that there was bleeding from the central nervous system of unknown origin. The intensification of neurological and general symptoms/among others-hyperthermia/suggested haemorrhagic encephalitis, which was confirmed by the viral investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid (tick-borne encephalitis). We describe this case because viral encephalitis rarely has haemorrhagic effects. Usually tick-borne encephalitis is of diphasic type with the attacks of "epilepsia partialis continua", which were not observed in this case.
Morasiewicz J. Baranowski P. Borys J. Janska-Skomorowska M. Kiejna A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej we Wroclawiu. [Evaluation of clinical usefulness of decaldol (haloperidol decanoate)produced by WZF Polfa in Warsaw in long-term treatment of schizophrenia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):405-20, 1995. In the study the usefulness was assessed of haloperidol depot preparation in 50 mg ampoules produced by Warsaw Pharmaceutical Works POLFA in the treatment of schizophrenia. The study group comprised 30 patients, 12 females and 18 males, aged 18-70 years. Before haloperidol administration all other drugs were withdrawn. Haloperidol depot was injected intramuscularly after 7-10 days of oral administration of haloperidol. The injections were done at 3-week intervals during 26 weeks. The mean interval between the injections was 17.8 days, and the mean dose was 77.0 mg. The effectiveness of the drug was assessed using Overall scale (BPRS) measuring the intensity of 18 psychotic symptoms in the following weeks of the trial: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 13, 17, 20, 23 and 26. The depot haloperidol preparation (Decaldol) was studied assessing its effects on productive and defect symptoms and depression. The strongest effect was exerted on productive symptoms, less pronounced effect was on psychotic defects, and lowest on depression symptoms. Improvement of the psychosis was noted in 20 cases, deterioration in 8 and no change was observed in two patients. The present trial period was not completed by 19 patients, 6 due to psychotic deterioration, 5 patients had intense extrapyramidal adverse effects and in 2 cases worsening of mental condition was associated with adverse effects. In this subgroup of 19 patients 9 were improved, 8 were worse, and 2 had no change in relation to initial status. In the remaining 11 cases who completed the study only full of considerable improvement was found.
Meder J. Morawiec M. Sawicka M. Zakladu Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej, Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii wWarszawie. [Nurses as leaders of medication management training module].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):395-404, 1995. In the group of 71 schizophrenic patients the connection between therapist profession (psychiatrist/nurse) and patients' gains concerning medication management was examined. Nurses were as well efficient as psychiatrists as the leaders of behavioral training and nearly as well efficient in conducting educational classes.
Zyss T. Nowak W. Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium Medicum UJ. [Complex treatment techniques for mentally retarded adults].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):381-93, 1995. The authors, a psychiatrist and a psychologist, took part, practically from the very beginning, in organization of a Social Care Home. They also exerted certain influence on elaboration and realization of the programme of complex treatment of mentally retarded persons. The authors present their experiences in application of such complex therapy. They also describe the new therapeutic technique realized in the so-called World Experience Halls, as particularly deserving introduction to treatment practice.
Meder J. Stolowska A. Zakladu Rehabilitacji Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii wWarszawie. [The tasks of vocational rehabilitation workshops in the broad range ofpsychiatric rehabilitation].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):371-9, 1995. The authors describe a new rehabilitation unit i.e. The Occupational Therapy Workshops, which were established on the basis of the Decree of Minister of Work and Social Politics. The paper consists of: 1) the law, regulations and rules; 2) experience gathered during one-year period of workshops functioning at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw. The authors encourage others to create similar workshops in mental health care settings because of their advantages as the form of preparation for occupational work. Occupational Therapy Workshops are a real aid for these persons who are no longer outpatients and have no possibility to take up a job.
Szafranski T. III Kliniki Psychiatrii IPiN w Warszawie. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):359-69, 1995. Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. 
Murak E. Ze Specjalistycznego Psychiatrycznego ZOZ w Lodzi. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):349-58, 1995. The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is characterized e.g.: by increased muscular tone, fever. NMS is the complication during neuroleptic therapy. The base of NMS are changes in the neurotransmitters. The course of NMS is usually typical. Complete NMS develops in a few hours. The course NMS depends on type of the neuroleptic and way of reception. The symptoms of NMS usually remain for several days. Rapid diagnosis and proper treatment are very important for prognosis. People who survived critical state of NMS have good life prognosis but poor outcome (since the return to neuroleptic therapy is impossible). NMS as a subject has an increasing significance because of more frequent usage of neuroleptic in general medicine. 
Terlikowska M. Marzanski M. I Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Akademii Medycznej w Warszawie. [Clinical differentiation between lethal catatonia and neuroleptic malignantsyndrome: a case report].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):343-8, 1995. Lethal catatonia is often regarded as clinically similar to, and perhaps indistinguishable from, neuroleptic malignant syndrome. However, the two syndromes reveal differences in the mode of onset, signs and symptoms, and outcome. Lethal catatonia often begins with extreme psychotic excitement, which, if persistent, can lead to fever, exhaustion, and death. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome begins with severe extrapyramidally induced muscle rigidity. Early clinical differentiation is important, because lethal catatonia often requires neuroleptic treatment, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome necessitates immediate cessation of neuroleptics.
Krzyminski S. Wojewodzkiego Szpitala Specjalistycznego dla Nerwowo i Psychicznie Chorych. [Age-associated memory impairment].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):319-31, 1995. This paper presents the diagnostic criteria for age-associated memory impairment (AAMI), proposed by the National Institute of Mental Health work group in the USA . The paper also discusses the related notions and possibilities of differentiation between AAMI and dementia of the Alzheimer type. 
Krzyminski S. Wojewodzkiego Szpitala Specjalistycznego. [Dementia in diffuse Lewy body disease].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):307-17, 1995. The article presents diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) elaborated by the group of investigators from Nottingham (Byrne et al. 1991. ). These criteria allow to make the diagnosis of "probable" or "possible" dementia associated with DLBD. With certainty this form of dementia can only be diagnosed by neuropathological examination which reveals diffuse cortical Lewy bodies. At present there is no agreement whether DLBD is a variant of Alzheimer's disease or a separate nosological entity--the second commonest cause of dementia. The main clinical feature of DLBD is coexistence of dementia and symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome. The other important feature which differentiates between DLBD and other forms of dementia is a very considerable early fluctuation of cognitive state. Psychotic symptoms in the course of DLBD--visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions and depression--are common. At present treatment of DLBD is unknown. Treatment of psychotic symptoms is difficult because of the presence of parkinsonism.
Bidzan L. Ussorowska D. II Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM w Gdansku. [Risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):297-306, 1995. A case-control study was conducted on 90 cases of "probable" Alzheimer's disease and 97 controls at the same age as patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. The patients were diagnosed according to the DSM IIIR criteria. Information was obtained on birth and childhood, medical and surgical history, exposure to various social, psychological and biological factors, family history of dementia. A structured questionnaire was based on AMDP-system. Some of the variables studied reached statistical significance: first of all unfavourable factors (especially poor livelihood) taking place during the person's childhood, the level of education and social activity. Family history of dementia among persons with Alzheimer type dementia also reached statistical significance. Head trauma was more frequent in patients with dementia, but the differences were not significant. The findings suggest a possible etiologic role for some environmental factors in dementia of the Alzheimer type.
Kucinski D. Kliniki Nerwic IPiN w Warszawie. [Transient global amnesia].Psychiatria Polska. 29(3):333-42, 1995. This paper reviews the literature concerning TGA. The author attempts to answer the question why this diagnostic category is rarely employed in Poland, and stresses the difficulty in differential diagnosis of TGA. The place of this term in the new systems of classification is also analysed. 
Rybakowski J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM w Bydgoszczy. [Pathogenetic mechanisms of stress in endogenous diseases].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):229-41, 1995.
Bomba J. Jaklewicz H. Kliniki Psychiatrii Dzieci i Mlodziezy Katedry Psychiatrii Collegium MedicumUJ. [Biological and family factors in the chronicity of childhood depression.Longitudinal study].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):161-73, 1995. A prospective follow-up study was conducted of a group of 32 children diagnosed at 7 years of age as socially and emotionally immature and depressive. In the three year follow-up a group found still depressive was compared with those no longer depressive. Biological vulnerability, early childhood development, family internal and external boundaries and child relational individuation were taken into account. Chronicity of childhood depression can be related to vulnerability and to family disfunction. Mutual interrelation of those factors requires further studies.
Florkowski A. Dietrich-Muszalska A. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii WAM w Lodzi. [Analysis of psychiatric diagnoses in children with anxiety symptoms].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):175-80, 1995.
Smoczyk-Lucka I. Oddzialu Psychiatrii Dzieciecej, II Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM w Gdansku. [Incest as one of the forms of child sexual abuse].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):181-91, 1995.
Sulestrowska H. Oddzialu Psychiatrii Dzieciecej, II Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM w Gdansku. [Twin rivalry as an important factor in the development of anorexia nervosain a 14-year-old girl].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):193-203, 1995.
Gudel-Trochimowicz I. Monieta A. Kliniki Chorob Psychicznych AM w Bialymstoku. [The application of narcoanalysis in bulimia nervosa: a case report].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):205-13, 1995.
Dziadkiewicz S. Oddzialu Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego, Wojewodzkiego SzpitalaNeuropsychiatrycznego w Lublincu. [Differential diagnosis between the hysteric syndrome and paranoid syndromein adolescents].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):215-22, 1995.
Rajczyk B. Oddzialu Psychiatrii Wieku Rozwojowego, Wojewodzkiego SzpitalaNeuropsychiatrycznego w Lublincu. [Hysterical syndrome after abatement of paranoid syndrome].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):223-8, 1995.
Slosarska M. Wojcik M. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [A comparison between subjective time estimation and simple reaction time inpatients with endogenous depression and in healthy subjects].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):243-52, 1995.
Zieba A. Wasieczko A. Jawor M. Dubiel D. Kubiak J. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii Doroslych Collegium Medicum UJ. [Preliminary results of the study on the combined treatment of endogenousdepression].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):253-61, 1995.
Jaracz J. Jaracz K. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrii AM w Poznaniu. [Post-stroke depression].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):263-71, 1995.
Karon BP. Michigan State University, USA. [The current status of mental health care in the United States].Psychiatria Polska. 29(2):273-7, 1995.
Slosarskai M. Wojcik M. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [Comparison of psychophysiological states in patients with bipolar affectivedisorder and healthy subjects].Psychiatria Polska. 29(1):101-10, 1995. It has been proposed a method for description of psychophysiological tension by simultaneous evaluation of heart rate, respiration and muscle tonus. Summary index (W) has been elaborated. On the basis of that index subjects with depressions phase of bipolar affective disorder were found to essentially differ from healthy subjects.
Wesolowski W. Doliszna N. Kliniki i Katedry Psychiatrii Fakultetu Szkolenia Podyplomowego Lekarzy,Instytutu Medycznego we Lwowie. [Factors influencing the clinical picture, course and effectiveness oftherapy in patients with manic-depressive psychoses].Psychiatria Polska. 29(1):87-92, 1995. The long lasting (5-8 years) clinical observations of 496 patients suffering from manic-depressive psychoses had allowed the authors to distinguish some factors which influence (in a positive and negative way) the clinical features and therapeutic effectiveness as well as to follow the origin of psychoses. The attached specification of these factors is not complete, further tests and investigations are needed.
Habrat E. Wojcik M. II Kliniki Psychiatrycznej Instytutu Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. [Reactivity and the need for stimulation in affective syndromes].Psychiatria Polska. 29(1):111-20, 1995. Twelve patients with endogenous depression and 13 health persons were investigated with the questionnaire FCZ KT (for measurement of temperament) and computerized Wiener Testsystem (for the evaluation of cognitive functions). Depressive patients expressed higher level of reactivity and a lower need for stimulation in comparison to a control group. In terms of temperamental characteristics (by FCZ KT test) the depressive group was less alert, more perseverative, less sensitive and more fatigued than the control group. The group with depression scored higher on scales measuring anxiety as a state and as a trait. No significant differences between the groups in physiological parameters measured by Wiener Testsystem were found.
Florkowski A. Pracucik J. Szubert S. Katedry i Kliniki Psychiatrycznej WAM w Lodzi. [Suicidal attempts among soldiers].Psychiatria Polska. 29(1):121-8, 1995. The authors conducted the analysis of 93 case histories of soldiers who were subjected to clinic observation in two four-year periods owing to suicide attempts. It